«O’zbekiston kelajagi buyuk davlat»
(East Uzbekistan is a state with a great future.)
Citation of I.A. Karimov.
Chapter I: Uzbekistan, a country to discover
Geographical overview of Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan is one of the great countries of Central Asia. It occupies the central place in Central Asia. This country lies between two great rivers, Amu-Daria and Syr-Daria. Its population is close to 31 million inhabitants (2015). It is one of the fifteen former republics of the USSR. Uzbekistan has been an independent state since 31 August 1991.
It is located on the following coordinates: 41 ° north latitude, 64 ° east longitude. Its surface area is 447,400 km2. It extends 1,425 km from west to east and 930 km from north to south. The time zone is UTC + 5. It occupies 56 of its surface area in the world. 90% of Uzbekistan occupies deserts, 10% belong to rivers. The country has no ribs. Uzbekistan does not have access to the sea. Its neighbors are 5 states;
Kazakhstan (north and west), Turkmenistan and Afghanistan (in the west and south), Tajikistan (in the east) and Kyrgyzstan (in the northeast). The Autonomous Republic of Karakalpakie is a component part of Uzbekistan. The total length of the borders of Uzbekistan is 6221 km:
137 km with Afganistan,
2.203 km with Kazakhstan,
1,099 km with Kyrgyzstan,
1.161 km with Tajikistan,
1.621 km with Turkmenistan.
Uzbekistan 420 km odds on the Aral Sea. The highest point of its mountains is 4643 (Khazrat Sultan)
Distance from France: + -6000km
The history of our country is very old. Many dynasties reigned over his land. From antiquity our country played a great role in the world civilization. Uzbekistan lies in the heart of Central Asia. Uzbekistan is a land of ancient civilization. It is a center of great communication and trade routes. Today, our independent and freedom-loving country walks its own way and affirms its own identity.
Uzbekistan is one of the oldest inhabited regions of Central Asia. Men arrived in the territory of Uzbekistan in 100,000 and 300,000 years before our era in the Middle Paleolithic. Archaeologists have discovered in the region of Samarkand an encampment of primitive men. The age of this encampment exceeds one hundred thousand years. In southern Uzbekistan the skull and bones of a Neanderthalian and remarkable rural paintings were discovered. The primitive man traced hunting scenes on the walls of the cave of the Sherabad region. There are also vestiges of primitive men in the vicinity of Tashkent, in Khorezm, in Karakalpakie.
The Bronze Age
In the Bronze Age between 2200 and 1700 BC. J.C. a bactro-margian civilization or the civilization of the Oxus (Amu-Daria existed in southern Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan). It had relations with the civilization of the valley of the Indus. His people were a mixture of local peoples and Indo-Aryans from Western Russia. According to the findings of the archaeological sites of Djarkoutan and Mollali Tépé we know that the inhabitants of this country made pottery and built houses for 100-125 inhabitants, cultivating wheat and barley. Remains of preserved irrigation canals relate to the end of the second millennium and to the first millennium BC. In the regions of Andijan, Surkhan-Daria and Bukhara, bronze objects, various utensils, clay tableware were found.
Starting from 1700 BC. AD, the Indo-Aryans migrated to India. The Sogdians, tribes of Iranian nomadic pastoralists settled in Uzbekistan and settled down.
Another culture, the culture of Tazabagyab, appeared around 1500 BC. J.-C near Khorezm south of the Aral Sea. Its inhabitants invented the first two-wheeled war chariots, pulled by two horses. They lived in villages, farmed the land and raised animals. They made bronze weapons and tools.
Bactria, Sogdiana, the Achaemenian Empire
Ancient states: Khorezm, Sogdiana and Bactria were in the present territory of Uzbekistan. The Sogdians lived in the region of Samarkand and Bukhara. The lands of the Bactrians were farther south between southern Uzbekistan and northern Afganistan. His capital was Bacytres (now Balkh).
Samarkand (Maracanda in Greek) was founded by the Sogdians in the 5th century BC
Zoroastrianism was developed in Bactria. According to this religion Ahura Mazda was the most powerful of the gods. Rituals and ritual sacrifices of animals were made by wizards of the purifying fire worship. Zarathustra, formerly called Zoroaster, was the founder of Zoroastrianism. He was born around the year 1000 BC. In Khorezm. Zoroastrianism glorifies the god of good Ahura Mazda and the struggle Spenta Manyu, the holy spirit against destructive Ahriman. According to Zoroastrianism the universe consists of the struggle of Good and Evil, opposed as day and night, hot and cold. The most popular deities in Central Asia were Mithra and Anahita. The Avesta is the Zoroastrian sacred book. It contained sacred texts, the gathas, the liturgical poems composed by Zoroaster. These texts date from the 2nd millennium BC. They were transmitted by the Magi orally, and then transcribed in the Sassanian epoch. They were lost and the present texts date from the thirteenth century. Zoroastrianism was practiced in Sogdiana and Bactria. There are ruins of the Zoroastrian temples in Karakalpakia. It is assumed that settled Scytho-Sakas are the ancestors of the Sogdians. Around the Aral Sea inhabited the nomadic tribes of the Sakas (or Saces) and the Massagetes. The Massagetes were valiant warriors and horsemen. They never separated from their horses and their bow. During the reign of Queen Tomyris they assassinated the Persian king Cyrus. Tomiris and Shirak are the national heroes of that time. Women played an important role. According to the data of the Greek historian Herodotus (Vth to the 5th century BC) there was an army of women soldiers called Amazones. They cut their breasts straight to better shoot with the bow. These women formed a social elite. The women of the nomadic tribes fought against enemies by the side of men.
The inhabitants of Bactria, Sogdiana and Khorezm (Kwarezm) irrigated the valleys of Syr-Daria, Amu-Dara and Zerafchan. They lived in communities, practiced handicrafts on metals and trade. In the deserts and mountains they led nomadic life.
The city of Afraciab near Samarkand was founded in 500 BC. There were found chess pawns. These are the oldest known chess pawns in the world. They are located in the museum of its archaeological site. The murals in Afrasiab are famous. According to the legends Afrasiab founded this legendary city. He was the king of all the Tourans. The Tourans are the ancestors of the Hephtalites and the Karakhanides. From 545 to 540 av. Cyrus II, founder of the Persian Empire, conquered Central Asia. In the sixth century before our era Bactria, Sogdiana, Khorezm and Parthia became provinces where the XI, XV and XV were drawn in the Achaemenian Empire.
Alexander the Great and the Seleucids
In 330 BC. Central Asia was conquered by Alexander the Great. He founded a town on the Oxus (Amu-Daria). This town is currently called Termez. It is the most southern city of Uzbekistan.
In Maracanda, now Samarkand, Alexander the Great married Roxane. She was the daughter of Oxyartes, local Sogdian leader. Alexander the Great took advantage of his marriage to defeat popular resistance in Sogdiana. Sititamenes is a national hero of the peoples of Central Asia. He directed the struggle against Alexander the Great. When Alexander the Great was on the banks of Syrdiya, Spitamenes lifted the Sogdians to the rebeillon. In 329, Spitamenes took Samarkand. On hearing this news, Alexander the Great returned in haste to crush this revolt. After the fierce struggle, Spitamenes fled to the Khorezm. The remains of the army of Spitamenes fought against invaders in Sogdiana and Bactria. There are different legends concerning the death of Spitamenes. According to one of them, the own commanders of Spitamenes killed him and offered his head to Alexander the Great. According to another, the wife of Spitamenes killed him and offered his head to Alexander the Great by believing Alexander’s promise to marry her. But the sovereign of the world did not keep his promise. Alexander married 10,000 Greeks to 10,000 Orientals in 324 BC. J.-C. Susa. In 323 BC, Alexander left Maracanda to conquer the citadel instead of the present-day Tashkent. On Jaxartes (Syr-Daria) he built a fortress city named Alexandria Eskhaté (extreme). He also built seven fortress towns. All these cities were called Alexandria. After the death of Alexander in 323 BC, General Selecos I Nikator became master of his empire. Selecos I Nikator founded the Seleucid dynasty. Under the reign of Selecos II, the state of the Seleucids was weakened. . About 250, Diodote I founded the Graeco-Bactrian kingdom around Bactria.
The invasions of the nomads
In the 1st century BC And the second century AD. The Graeco – Bactrian state declined. Yuezhi, nomadic people from China invaded the Greco-Bactrian kingdom. The Parni, known in history as the Parthians, occupied in 247 BC the western part of Bactria (between Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan today), the lands of the Sakas (or Saces). Their capital was Nisa, in present-day Turkmenistan. The Sakas set out for the present Afganistano, where the Yuezhi ruled from 126 BC The Kushan Empire, a people of Turkish origin, was founded in the 1st century BC and occupied the north of India and Central Asia. Its capital Kapisa was located near the present Bagram in Afganistan. The empire of the Kushans was one of the four powers of the time with Rome, China and Pathe. During the reign of Kanishka, the Kushan State reached its apogee. Trade, art and culture were highly developed. At that time, religions such as Zoroastrianism, Buddhism, Christianity and Manichaeism cohabited in Central Asia. The Kushans imported Buddhism in Central Asia. Under the Kushans the Hellenistic arts of the East were developed.
The Persian Sassanids and the White Huns (Hephtalites)
In the 3rd and 4th centuries, the Sassanids tried to conquer the Transoxian. At the end of the 4th century the Huns, the Chionites (Red Huns) and the Kidatites established their rule. In 427, the Sassanid king Vahram V ( “Vahram Ghur”) crushed the nomadic troops of the White Huns (Hephtalites), and added their lands to the Persian Empire. In 442 his son Yazdgard II Sipahdost crushed the Kidarite kingdom. Transoxiana was under the dominion of the Sassanid dynasty for more than four centuries. Peroz, the son of the Sassanid Emperor YazdgardeII, with the aid of the Hephtalites, crushed his father’s army and became Emperor of Persia in 459-484. The Hephtalites were very cruel. People tremble with fear on the mere mention of their names. The Hephtalites adopted the Sogdian language and settled themselves and reigned over the Sogdians. It is assumed that the White Huns are the first ancestors of the Uzbek people. During a great battle of eight days, near Bukhara, between 560 and 563, the Hephtalites were crushed by the Kokturks.
The Kokturks Khanate
At the end of the 6th century, in 552 the Turks created their empire, the Turkish Khanate, a federation of Turkish tribes. In 576, Mugan (Muhan), the son of the Turkish khan Bumin, succeeded his father Istami. During the reign of the khan of the Kokturks Tardu, son of Istämi, the empire of the Kokturks was divided into two states. The state of the Eastern Turks in Mongolia was ruled by Nivar, Mugan’s brother. The state of Western Turks included the Tian Shan, Uzbekistan and eastern Kazakhstan and was led by Tardu. Vassal tribes, the Qarluq, revolted, and killed Tong, his brother. The Western Turks lost their unity. In 657 almost all of Central Asia fell into the hands of the Chinese. Under the Turks, handicrafts on metals (gold, silver, iron, lead, copper, etc.), and writing, cotton production and Silk was developed. During subsequent centuries in cities like Afrasiab, Pendjikent, Varakhcha appeared an ethnic mix of Turkish nomads and Sogdians.
In the eighth century the Arabs invaded Central Asia. They called it Ma-Wara-al-Nahr, the country behind the river. With the Arab invasion the life of this region changed and despite the general resistance, little by little Islam became the main religion. The Sogdians converted to Islam were exempt from taxes. The decree of compulsory circumcision and correct knowledge of the Corande was the cause of the many revolts of the population against the Arab caliphate. In 720 and 721, the Sogdians destroyed the Arab garrison of Samarkand with the help of the Turks. They revolted under the Conduct of Divashtich, king of the eastern city of Panjikent and a part of rebels took refuge in the fortress of Abargar, located on Mount Mug. Today, on this mountain, on the left bank of the Zeravshan, archaeologists have found many documents concerning the life of Sogdian society.
The Arabs besieged the fortress, and Divashtich was obliged to surrender. He was executed in autumn 722 under the command of al-Harashi, the new governor of Khorassan. In 728, Bukhara rebelled. It fell in the summer of 729, after several months of hard fighting. Despite the repression of the Arabs, the resistance of the Sogdians did not stop. During the Battle of Talas against the Chinese in 751, the Arabs were taken prisoners of many Chinese and learned the secret of making paper. Samarkand became the first paper production center in the Muslim world.
The inscriptions took place in 720-722 in Soghdiana, in 734-737 in Sogdiana and Khorassan and in 747-750 under the direction of Abu Muslim in 801-802 and in 806 throughout Ma wara’un -Nahr. The time of the Arab Caliphates, in the large cities of Samarkand, Binkent (Tashkent), Termez and Bukhara develop handicrafts, trade and irrigation techniques. From 750 to 850, the so-called “Arab-Muslim” science reaches its peak.
By the 9th century, most of the writings of Greece had been translated into Arabic. The philosopher Farabi (872-950) was born in Transoxiana, the second master (the first master is Aristotle) plays a great role in the science of that time. He is famous for his notes on the Metaphysics of Aristotle
Al-Khorezmi was the great mathematician, astronomer, geographer of great renown, author of the bases of the system of equations of the first and second degree and of a part of modern mathematics, inventor of algebraic principles. He gave his name to the algorithm. His works, especially “The Treatise on the Solar Hours” and “The Astronomical Tables” were translated into the Middle Ages in Latin.
The famous astronomer al-Fergani (805-880) was born in Ferghana. Under his leadership, two observatories were built near Baghdad and Damascus. Muhammad al-Bukhari (Imam Boukhari (810-870), a famous Sunni Muslim scholar of Persian origin, was born in the city of Bukhara.
At the end of the first quarter of the ninth century the power of the Arabs began to weaken. After the takhirid and saffarid dynasties all of Central Asia and Khorassan came under the power of Ismaïl ibn Akhmad Samani. Bukhara became its capital and the center of Islamic education.
Economic relations with the Near East, Eastern Europe and China developed. Under the reign of the Samanids, the Persian language (Farsi) and the Arabic language were the official languages. In the 10th century Bukhara had its peak. The students of the Muslim world preferred to study in Bukhara. Its famous royal library included 45,000 volumes. At the time of the Samanids, culture, science and commerce developed. Under the order of the Samanids, various canals were built, the Yaqsar dam near Samarkand being an example. High-quality glass and ceramics were produced. The paper of Samarcande, especially the paper called “quogosi abrechimi” was famous for its quality and its finesse.
In the 9th and 12th centuries, culture and sence developed. The great physician and philosopher Avicenna (Abu Ali Ibn Sina) was born near Bukhara in the village Afchona in 980. At 17 years he succeeded in healing the Samanid prince of Bukhara, Nuh ibn Mansur. Works such as “The Book of Healing”, “The Laws of Medicine”. He died in 1037.
The scholar encyclopedist al-Biruni was born in 973 in a suburb of Kath, near the present Uzbek city of Urgench. He is the author of more than 150 works on philosophy, history, astronomy, geology, ethnography.
The Karakhanides, the Turkish Seljuks and the Khorezm-Persian-Turkish Shahs
The Turkish dynasty desQarakhanides (Karahan) overthrew the Samanids to 999 and invade Bukhara Samarcande.Cette dynasty ruled over present-day Uzbekistan in the late tenth century in 1212. In 920, Satuq Bughra made collectively convert Karakhanids to Islam. At that time the Gaznavids seized Khorassan and Khorezm. In 1040 the Seljuk Sultan, the head of the tribes Turks ended the power of Ghaznavi.Les Seljuks another Turkish dynasty in Central Asia have crashed in 1040. Karahan Karahan and the kingdom was divided into two: the kingdom Western kingdom and the eastern kingdom. Bukhara became the capital the western kingdom, in 1042, its capital moved to Samarkand. The eastern kingdom was governed from Kashgar. Under the Karakhanides art and architecture developed in Transoxiana. Muhammad II (1102-1130) had the Po-i-Kalân (Kalyan) minaret built in Bukhara. In 1089, Bukhara and Samarkand were occupied by the Seljuks. From 1124 to 1218, the valley of Fergana found itself in the possession of the tribes of Kara-Khitans.
The khorezm monarch Ala-ad-Din Tekech (Takash) (1172-1200) conquered Persia in 1194. He dethroned the last Turkish sultan of Seljuk dynasty Tuğrul ibn Arslan, governor of a part of Transoxiane. The khorezm-shah Ala ad -Din Muhammad destroyed in 1212, the State of the Karakhanides with its capital Samarkand. The Khorezm-shah army pillaged Samarkand for three days. The khorezm-shah invaded the entire territory of this region. Thus, at the beginning of the thirteenth century, the State of Chorezmchah was one of the most important countries of the region.
The Mongols, the Tchaghataïdes and the Barlas
The reign of khorezm-shahs did not last long. In 1219, the governor of Khorezmian Otrar on the Syr Darya murdered a spy’s merchants sent by Genghis Khan. The ambassadors sent by Genghis Khan to ask for explanations were also killed. After intense struggles, in 1220, the Mongols conquered present-day Uzbekistan. They destroyed the main cities like Samarkand, Bukhara and Tashkent. Genghis Khan was ruthless with the besieged cities. He massacred the population of cities résistaient.Plus 150 years Transoxiane remained under occupation mongole.Gengis Khanpartagea his empire to his son four. The current Uzbekistan found himself in the hands of his second son, Tchagatai (Djagatai). He is the founder of the Djaghatoid dynasty.
The Khanate of Tchagataï, was founded in 1219. The Turco-Mongol State included the current four countries of Central Asia, southern Kazakhstan, western and Chinese Xinjang northern Afganistan.Le Khanate has Tchagataï existed from 1229 to 1347. in the first half of the fourteenth century, the state of Tchagataïdes had split into two, the nomad Mongolistan, and Mawara’un-Nahr, a khanate (ulus) Western, mostly sedentary. In 1347 the chief of the tribe Karnau, Kazaghan (Qazghan) assassinated the last great khan desTchaghataïdes, Kazan (Qazan) and proclaimed himself emir ( “governor”).
The Kazaghan Emir Abdullah and his son ruled over present-day Uzbekistan until 1360. After the assassination of Abdallah, the country fell into chaos. Attacks by the nomads of Mongolistan have weakened and impoverished the country.
It was then that the leader of the Barlas Turkic-speaking Mongol tribe, Hadji Barlas, took power in the region. After the escape of Hadji Barlas in Persia, his nephew Timur (Tamerlane) became the leader of the Barlas and in 1370 of the whole country.
Timur (Tamerlane) and Timurides
Timur or Tamerlane (1336-1405), son of Mokhammad Taragai, chief of the Barlas clan was born in Kesh, now Chakhrisabz near Samarkand. He was a great warrior and a protector of art and letters. He was a distant relative of Genghis khan. Even at the end of his life, without being able to walk, he always went to battle by ordering his men to carry him. Timour married Aldjai, granddaughter of Emir Qazghan and became governor of Kesh in the 1360s He allied himself with Amir Hussein, the grandson of Qazgan. Aldjai died before 1370. In 1370 he became great emir of Ma-wara-al-nahr. His capital was Samarkand. He revived Samarcande, devastated in 1220 by the Mongols. The riches and artists, craftsmen, scholars and scholars captured during his countless campaigns to Upper Asia, East Turkestan and India were brought to Samarkand. He put an end to the quarrels of the feudal lords. The Russian princes have the opportunity to free their country from the Mongols in 1395 thanks to its victory over the Golden Horde. After his marriage to the widow of his brother-in-law Mir Husayn, Saray Mulk Khanum, daughter of the late khan Qazan, he obtained the title of güregen ( “son-in-law” Imperial). It is known worldwide as Bibi Khanoum ( “eldest princess”). In Samarkand there is a mosque that bears the name of this princess.Amir Timour died on January 19, 1405 in Otrar, on Syr Daria He is buried in the mausoleum Gour Emir in Samarkand.Timour made Samarcande the most beautiful city in the world of his time, a great center of commerce with an astonishing architecture.On countless palaces and gardens have been Built under the order of Timour in Samarkand. Science and culture developed, power was centralized.Several cities established by Amir Timour around Samarcande bore the names Forich-Paris, Shiraz, Sultaniya, Baghdad, Merv.
Diplomacy was developed at the time of Timur and Shah Roukh. There are notes in Chinese documents on the embassies from Peking to Samarkand in 1391, 1395, 1404 and the Timurid embassies in China in 1388, 1391, 1394, 1412 Amir Timour ordered Jean de Syltanie, an Italian Dominican to go to Genoa, and he came there in 1398. On August 17, 1401 Timour received a diplomatic letter from Charles VI. Under the order of Henti III of Castile, Gomes of Satamayor and Hernan Sanchez set off to establish contacts with Ottomans and Timurids. They witnessed the battle between Timur and Bajazet in the spring of 1402. Timour received them very well after the battle .
A timid diplomatic mission headed by Muhammad al-Ghazi returned to Castile with them
John of Syltania left in 1403 with the replies of Timour to the letters of Charles VI. The second embassy of Henry of Castile counted in its ranks Ruy Gonzales of Clavijio. His account of his journey to the East makes him famous. After the death of this great conqueror, Shahroukh put an end to the fraternal quarrels. At the time of Shahroukh and his wife Gawharchadbeguim, their capital Herat became a center of “timurid rennaissance”. The best architects, musicians, miniaturists and poets have found shelter there.
Ouloughbeg was the eldest son of Shahroukh and grandson of Timour. His real name was Muhammad Taragay. He was born in 1394 in Sultaniya (present-day Iran) .Shahrouk gave Samarkand to the domination of Ouloughbeg. From 1411, Ouloughbeg would reign over all the Transoxian. He loved mathematics, history medicine, music, poetry. He knew theology well. Its School of Astronomy and its Observatory of Samarkand (1424-1429) was unique.
His astronomical tables bear his name “Zij-i-Gurgani”. He invited to Samarkand great scholars of the time like Ali Kuchtchi and the Turkish astronomer Qazi Zadeh Roumi. With these astronomers he determined the coordinates of more than a thousand stars, invented the calculations necessary to foresee the eclipses and measured the stellar year with great precision. He had several madrasas constructed at Samarkand. His medersa (institute) was opened in 1420. He taught there. These scholars have succeeded in publishing the Astronomical Tables of Ouloughbek. His precision remained unequal for two centuries. He was assassinated in 1449 by his son Abdullatif. Abdulattive ascended the throne. But, he himself was killed in 1450. Ali Quchtchi left with a copy of the Astronomical Tables at Tabriz, then at Istanbul. The Madrasa of Oulugh Beg worked until the 17th century. But in the second half of the 15th century, Oulough Beg’s medersa lost its importance. In Hérat, the famous Uzbek poet and philosopher Alicher Navoi, the founder of modern Uzbek language, led his life and work. The period of Shah Rukh (1377-1447), Ouloughbegh (1394-1449), Husayn Baykara (1438-1506) is called “Renaissance timouride”.
The Chaybanids belong to the Mongolian Muslim dynasty descended from Chayban, son of Djotchi. They consisted of 15,000 families. There was a small khanate (ulus) within the Golden Horde, called the Gray Horde, in present-day Kazakhstan. The leader of the Uzbek tribe, khan Uzbek (1282-1342) had converted to Islam Horde d’Or. The Khan Abul-Khayr was able to reunite the nomadic tribes of Chaybanides living between Tobol, Ural and Syr-Daris in 1429 under the name of Ulus Uzbek. This is the first mention of the name “Uzbek” in the story. After the death of Abul Khayr in 1468, his nephews, Prince Muhammad Shaybani and his brother Mahmud founded the Uzbek khanate. Muhammad Shaybani conquered in 1500 the cities of Bukhara and Samarkand. He overthrew the Timurids in 1507. He was killed in 1510 by the Persians.
A branch of the Chaybanid dynasty founded the Khiva khanate. The Khiva khanate existed until 1920. Babur takes Samarkand twice; But in 1513, after his last defeat, he returned to India and founded the Mughal dynasty which lasted until 1858. Under the order of Abdoulla khan, in the 1540s, Bukhara was built beautiful mosques and Madrasas. In the second half of the sixteenth century, diplomatic and commercial relations were established between the Bukhara khanate and Iran, India, Moscow and China. At the end of the 16th century, Bukhara became the political and cultural center of Ma-wara-al-nahr.
The dignitaries of the court assassinated in 1598 the last khan of Bukhara and Samarkand Abd al-Mumin, of the dynasty of Chaybanides. The dynasty of Astrakhan, the Djanids, descendants of Djotchi, governs the khanate of Bukhara in the second half of the 17th century. In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, literature, architecture and painting developed. The history of the khanate of Kokand began in 1732. According to a legend Chakhroukhbiy, one of the chiefs of the Ming tribe was the founder of the khanate of Kokand. He built the fortress Eski Kourgan. He was the tenth descendant of a newborn prince. This baby was left by Babur in a cradle of gold in the valley of Fergana. The tribe raised it. At the end of the 18th century Kokand Khanate included the lands of Fergana, Namangan, Andijan, Tashkent, Khodjent, Kyrgyzstan and South Kazakhstan. The Hungarian traveler Vambery mentions that the area of Kokand was six times larger than Khiva, four times larger than Tehran, twice as large as Bukhara. Under the reign of the emir Omarkhanla culture and art would prosper in the khanate and its capital. His wife Nadirabeguim was famous oriental poetess. Due to the history of its existence the khanate of Kokand was governed by 29 khans.
The reign of Bâbur in Ferghana
At the age of 12, in 1498, after the death of his father Omar Sheikh Mirza, King of Ferghana, Zahirddin Muhammad Babur, became ruler of Fergana. He was born in 1483 and died in 1530. He was descended from Amir Timour by Miran Shah and Genghis Khan by his mother. In 1497, he took Samarkand. But his nobles revolt against him and he loses his conquest. He tried to resume Samarkand. But Muhammad Shaybani, the khan of the Uzbeks hunted him in 1501. In 1504, Babur and his few faithful troops crossed the Hindu-Kush, took the city of Kabul. He became the king of a rich kingdom. In 1510Muhammad Shaybani died. After his death, Babur took Samarkand in 1511 with the help of the Turkmen Ismail Safavi. But in 1514, the Uzbek khans drove him out. After his return to Kabul, he conquered northern India and founded the dynasty of the Mughals. This dynasty reigned until the arrival of the English. Babur died in Agra in 1530. His “Memoirs” are universally known. It is the national pride of the Uzbeks.
The three khanats
Three khanates existed in the territory of present-day Uzbekistan between 1512-1920.
Khanat of Khiva is also called “State of Khorezm”. He was the oldest of the three Uzbek khanates. Because of the change in the course of the Amu-Daria (Oxus) in 1598 its capital Gurgandj (Urgench) lost its place and Khiva became its capital. In 1873 he became a protectorate of the Russian Empire.
Khanat (Emirate) of Bukhara
The Khanate of Bukhara also existed on the territory of Uzbekistan between 1599-1920. It was a persistent Central Asian State. Its capital was Bukhara. Samarkand was its component part.
The Djanid dynasty ruled over the Khanate of Bukhara from 1599 to 1785. The representatives of the Djanid dynasty had two madrasas, Sherdor and Tillakori, built on the Place du Registan in Samarkand between 1646 and 1660.
The Shah of Persia, Nadir Shah invaded the Khanate of Bukhara in 1785. And the Khanate became “emirate.” In 1868, the Emirate of Bukhara became a protectorate of Russia.
Kokand Khanate was located in the heart of the Fergana valley in eastern Uzbekistan.It existed between 1709 and 1876 and consisted of part of the lands of Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan.The Kyrgyz and Kazakh nomadic tribes of East Kazakhstan was its vassal. In the early nineteenth century, Tashkent was under the domination of Kokand Khanate. In 1876 Kokand was invaded by the Russian army.
Under the Russian Empire
Because of the fratricidal quarrels between the three khanats in the first half of the nineteenth century, the country became impoverished, the economy fell into decay, and the Russians had the chance to invade Central Asia. Russia conquered first the nomad tribes of Kazakhs in 1864, then Tashkent in 1865, then the khanats of Bukhara and Khiva in 1873. In March 1876, the Khanate of Kokand fell into the hands of the Russians. The fierce and heroic resistance of Pulad Khan could not stop the troops of the Russian generals von Kaufman and Skobelev. Despite a fierce struggle, all these khanats fell one after the other. The khanats of Bukhara and Khiva became Russian protectorates in 1868. All Central Asia occupied by Russia is called the General Government of Turkestan. In 1867 Tashkent became its capital.
The peoples of Turkestan suffered from tyranny. The invaders oppressed the local people. Fergana rebelled in 1885, Tashkent in 1892 and Andijan in 1898. The peoples of Central Asia had no civil and political rights. In 1898, the national hero, Mukhammadali Echon directed the revolt in Andijan. But the forces were not equal. The Russians crushed this revolt, punished the participants, and destroyed the villages. Mukhammadali Echon and his disciples were hanged 362 people exiled in Siberia.
The Russians controlled the production and distribution of cotton in Turkestan. In 1916,
A conscription decree mobilizing Muslims in non-combatant units on the eastern front becomes the cause of Uzbek rebellion. But this uprising was severely stifled by the Russians. The Russians and Ukrainians settled in present-day Uzbekistan. This period is characterized by the modernization of the central cities of Central Asia and the appearance of parks, hotels, theaters, lighting, telephone and railways.
The Soviet era
In February 1917, the first Social-Democratic revolution in Moscow took place. In criticizing the tsarist repression and promising self-determination, it gained popular support in Central Ase. But it did not keep promise. As early as March 1917 the unions appeared. The Bolsheviks seize power in Russia on 7 November 1917.
The Third Congress of the Soviets took place from 15 to 22 November. Its aim was to form the government of the Soviets. According to the decision of this congress, Muslims should not take part in the functions of the government. This coup d’etat inspired the peoples of Central Asia. In 1917 an independent state was born in Kokand.
The aim of this government was to build a strong independent state in Central Asia. Modernization of the religious power, Westernization and education of the people were its essential principles. This state existed for 72 days. On February 21 the Red Army of the Bolsheviks crushed this state in the blood. More than 14,000 Kokands were exterminated after the capture of the city. The Uzbek people never forget their heroes. The Bolsheviks founded the Soviet Autonomous Republic of Turkestan (TASS) in 20 April 1918. This state did not defend the interests of the local people. It served the Bolsheviks. They suffered from hunger in the towns. The Bolsheviks requisitioned food, cattle, cotton, and earth. The people hated the Bolsheviks. The Bolsheviks requisitioned food, cattle, cotton, and earth. The war was called “the Basmatchi movement.” Kichik Ergach, Katta Ergach, Madaminbek, Chermukhammadbek, Xolxoja echon, Omon polvon, Rakhmonkoul Toychi, and others were hated by the Bolsheviks. Aliyor were at the head of the rebellion of the “basmatchi” (brigands in Uzbek) in Ferghana. The total number of basmatchi in Ferghana was more than 24ooo people. But among them were those which plundered, reigned terror, compromised the liberation movement.
Was at the head of the rebellion of the “basmatchi” (brigands in Uzbek). Emir Alim Khan of Bukhara declared “the holy war”. In 1920 Frounze captured Bukhara and Khiva. The Emir fled to Afganistan. In October 1920 was born the popular Soviet republic of Bukhara. Former war minister of the Ottoman Empire Enver Pasha was at the head of the rebellion of the “basmatchi” in Bukhara. Under the direction of Enver Pachales basmatchis led a liberation war until the thirties. They were crushed by the Red Army. In 1922, Enver Pasha dies arms in hand in the mountains of Pamir. In 1923, the popular Soviet republic of Bukhara was transformed into a Soviet socialist republic of Bukhara. In 1923, was born the Soviet Socialist republic of Khorezm.
The Bolsheviks requisitioned food, cattle, cotton, and earth. The people hated the Bolsheviks. In 1924, the Khorezm rose against the Bolsheviks. But the Bolsheviks crushed the revolt. The “basmatchi” movement was fighting against the Russians until 1940.
The Uzbek people never forget their heroes. Trade and agricultural production declined. We were hungry. More than a million people have been victims of the famines being manipulated by Stalin. Purges were organized against all party leaders, intellectuals, democrats and nationalists.
In 1924 a Soviet Border Commission under the aegis of the Commissioner for the Nationalities of the time, Joseph Stalin fixed the contours of the States. On October 27, 1924, the Soviet Socialist Republic of Uzbekistan was born. The Soviet Socialist Republic of Uzbekistan included part of Turkestan, the Republic of Bukhara and the Republic of Khorezm, the Tajik Soviet Autonomous Republic. The Soviet Autonomous Republic of Tajikistan became a federated republic in 1929. The Autonomous Republic of Karakalpakia was separated from the Kazakhstan SSR in 1936 and became a component part of the Uzbekistan SSR.
The years 1937-1938 were the years of the Stalinist “Great Purges”. According to Stalin’s policy, party leaders and intellectuals were dismissed. Former Prime Minister fayzulla khodzhayev, poets and intellectuals expressing as Fitrat Tchoulpon, Usmon Nosir, Abdulla Qodiri, Gozi Yunus Mahmud Botou Munavvar Qori Abdourachidkhonov Said Rizo Alizodasont the victims of these purges. Most of the mosques and churches were closed, destroyed, and several mullahs and priests were executed and sent to the Gulag.
During World War II, Uzbekistan received more than one million people and 200,000 children.The Uzbek families adopted thousands of children, war orphans. Factories and factories were evacuated to Uzbekistan. After their reconstruction, airplanes, bombs and weapons were produced for the front. Uzbekistan sent food, clothing, and money to the front. The Uzbek people gave 650 million rubles. Many Uzbek citizens have become heroes posthumously. The exploits of Mamadali Topiboldiev, Zebo Ganieva, Sora Choukourova and many others will remain forever in the memory of Uzbek people. In 1943, Stalin falsely accused the Volga Germans and other minorities USSR sympathy for the German invaders, and had them deported to Uzbekistan. More than 500,000 Uzbeks are lost and disappeared during this war. The contribution of the peoples of Uzbekistan to the victory of 9 May is very great.
After the war
By the late 1960s, women were no longer wearing chador. Girls studied in the same way as boys. In February 1956, the XX Congress of Soviets ͤ criticized the work of Staline.L’époque Khrushchev was the era of democracy which lasted until the mid 1964 1960.En Brezhnev becomes the head of state. He always asked for cotton. Thousands of skilled workers from all over the USSR settled in Uzbekistan in the 1960s and 1980s.
The Indo-Pakistani Conference was held on 4 January 1966 in Tashkent. Through this conference, the two countries resumed earthquake diplomatiques.Un relationships destroyed Tashkent April 26 1966.Selon a vast reconstruction program all Soviet republics have built many buildings. But Moscow decided to give 20% of apartments to local russophones.Cette decision provoked discontent in May 1969, which is called “Pakhtakor incident” .After 1966 Tashkent became the most populous city and most modern of the Central Asia. The International Film Festival of Asia, Africa and Latin America took place in Tashkent in the 1960s and 1980s.
Case of cotton
Uzbekistan was the producer and the second largest exporter of cotton in the world in the Soviet era.
Under the Moscow order, cotton was intensively cultivated in the years 1960-1980. Moscow demanded the production of 6 million tons of Uzbek white gold. Excessive use of chemical fertilizers and defoliants poisoned soils and waters. The use of the waters of the Amu-Daria and Syr-Daria rivers for irrigation becomes the cause of the drying up of the Aral Sea. The surface of the sea decreased by half in 40 years.
Moscow demanded even more cotton. At the end of 1983, Charof Rashidov, first secretary of the CP of Uzbekistan died of a heart attack. The Uzbek state is undergoing a severe crisis. Investigators Gdlian and Ivanov under the order of Gorbachev, first secretary of the former Soviet Union, prosecuted a legal case called the Uzbek case in March 1985. This “cotton case” is the cause of the tragedy Thousands of simple and innocent peasants, drivers of tractors, arrested without trial by the court. After Rashidov’s death, more than 2,600 people were arrested and tried, 50,000 officials lost their seats. Almost all of the Uzbek state apparatus has been replaced. The direct control of Moscow hardens. Moscow changed according to his wishes and captured Uzbek leaders until 1990. Ousmankhodjaev in 1983, Salimov in 1983-1986, Nichanov in 1986-1988, Khabiboullaev in 1988-1989, Ibraguimov in 1989-1990. This “cotton affair” and these false accusations have caused much misfortune to the Uzbek people. Cotton monoculture, poverty, a disdainful attitude towards the Uzbek people, the disaster of the Aral Sea, inequality wounded national pride and was the cause of ethnic conflicts in the Fergana valley.
Rashidov is considered a leader who has done much for the development of the republic. He was able to obtain a certain autonomy from Moscow for the benefit of Uzbekistan. He built several architectural ensembles, the magnificent subway in Tashkent. It is considered by the Uzbeks as the national glory.
The Red Army and Afganistan
In 1979, under the order of Brezhnev, the Red Army invaded Afganistan to aid a communist regime. Many young Uzbeks, Turkmens and Tajiks, children of Uzbekistan, were called into the service of the Soviet army. This war lasted ten years and killed 15,000 Soviet soldiers, including Uzbeks, and more Of a million and a half Afgans. In the Soviet army, Uzbek recruits were mistreated. This fact raised a discontent in the republic. Protests against Uzbek military service outside Uzbekistan took place. On 15 May 1988 the Soviet army withdrew from Afganistan. This war caused misery to many families. In 1989, Islam Abduganiyevich Karmov became first secretary of the CP of Uzbekistan.
The end of the USSR
Uzbekistan defended the maintenance of the USSR during perestroika and glastnost. The majority of Uzbekistaners replied “yes” to the referendum on the maintenance of the USSR in 1991.
Nine of the fifteen Soviet republics accepted a new treaty according to which fifteen Soviet republics were to be sovereign in a federation with a common foreign and military president and policy. But on August 18, 1991 took place the Moscow putsch that changed everything. La Rusie declared its independence. Uzbekistan also declared independence on August 31, 1991. Independence Day is celebrated on September 1. At the referendum almost all Uzbekistanis were for independence. The political slogan of those days was “The little that the Russians gave us, we would have obtained sooner or later, but the greatness from which they have dispossessed us will never come back to us.”
As of independence, the Uzbek State establishes diplomatic relations with all foreign countries. Great urban and road reconstruction works are carried out. The Uzbek language becomes the official language and state language.
On 21 December 1991 Uzbekistan became a member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (Treaty of Alma-Ata). This Commonwealth of Independent States comprises 12 of the 15 former republics of the USSR. On 2 March 1992, Uzbekistan became a member of the United Nations, UNESCO. On 27 January 2006 he joined the Eurasian Economic Community. The Republic of Uzbekistan is a member of the UN, the OSCE, INESCO, WHO, the World Tourism Organization, etc. On June 15, 2001, she became a founding member of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization. The Collective Security Treaty Organization was also incorporated on 15 August 2006. On 18 May 2007 the Government of Uzbekistan acceded to the Cooperation Agreement on the Enforcement of Criminal Penalties in the Eurasian Economic Community. In November 2008, Uzbekistan suspended its participation in the EAEC.165 States have recognized Uzbekistan.103 States have established diplomatic relations with it. More than forty diplomatic missions are operating in Tashkent.
The death penalty has been abolished in Uzbekistan since 1 January 2008.
Uzbekistan is a land of the sun. Its climate is torrid, arid and continental type. The north of Uzbekistan belongs to the moderate zone, the extreme south is a subtropical zone. Drought, abundance of light and heat is typical of the climate of the country. In Uzbekistan, summers are long, dry and hot. In summer, the duration of the day is 15 hours and that of the winter is not less than 9 hours. The average temperature of the summer is + 35 °, but sometimes it can reach 45 °. The hottest month is July. Autumn is mild and rainy. Winter is cold with snow. In winter the average temperature is around -2 ° -10 °, but sometimes it can be cold down to -40 °. The coldest month of winter is January.
Precipitation is rare, the annual average varies from 150 to 200 mm. The spring in Uzbekistan is mild and rainy. The mountains are beautiful in summer. It is best to visit Uzbekistan in the spring, from the end of March to the end of June, and in the autumn from September to November.
The relief of Uzbekistan
The relief of Uzbekistan is varied. The deserts and green valleys, high snowy mountains and plateaus, rivers abundant in water make an incomparable impression.
Deserts and plains comprise almost 80% of the territory. The mountains and their foothills comprise 1/5 parts of the territory of the republic. The highest point of the mountains is 4643 m high.
The relief of Uzbekistan includes:
-mountains and foothills to the east and south-east;
– semi-deserts and deserts in the west;
-plains in the southeast and northeast
Earthquakes are typical for Uzbekistan.
Presentations by geographical area
The mountains and foothills of Uzbekistan
The mountains of Uzbekistan are the most picturesque of Central Asia.
The beauty of the woods and mountain meadows is incomparable.
The landscape of eternal snows, glaciers, mountain pastures, mountain ranges breathtaking.
The summer in the mountains is long, the air and the soil are dry, the unbearable heat reigns there.
But summer in the high mountains is short and cool. In the afternoon it is very hot, but at night in the high mountains, the temperature can fall to 0 degrees. Much snow falls in the mountains of Uzbekistan. The snow is held for 2 to 6 months. The mountains of Uzbekistan are:
Tyanshan, Pamir Alai, Korjantag, Ugam, Piskom, Chotkol (its highest peak is Katta Chimiyon, its height is 3309m) Turkiston, Morguzar, Chumgor, Nurota, Kurama, Zirabulak, Ziyovuddin, Yakkabog, Surxontag, Kuhitang, Bobotog , Bo’kantag, Tomditag, Ovminzatag, Quljuktag, Yetimtag, Sulton Uvays and rugged mountains in the far east, the Chatkal mountains. There are 8 nature reserves in Uzbekistan, landscapes, pine forests, deserts and glaciers. Gazelles, bears, lynxes and the rare snow leopard live there.
To the north-east of the desert Kyzyl kum stands the Bukantau mountain ranges. The hollow Mingbulak means word for word “thousand sources”. It lies in the south of these mountain ranges. It is known by its lowest point of Uzbekistan, 12 meters below sea level. Mountains and foothills comprise 1/5 parts of the territory of the republic. Medium mountains and high mountains predominate in the relief of the East. The ridges Ugam, Pskem, Chatkal, Kuramin the Western Tien Shan and Zerafchan ridges, Hissar, Kuhitangtau, Baysuntag, the Pamiro-Alay mountains are in the territory of the Republic. The moderate mountains of Nurata, low mountains like Aktay, Karakchitay, the western tips and ridges of the Zerafchan range are very attractive. The great hollows as of Kachkadaria, Surxandaria, Zerafchan, Fergana extend between the mountains. The valley of Fergana is the biggest hollow. On three sides it is bordered by mountain ranges and its western part is only open. The valley of Fergana comprises 370 km, its width is 190 km. The wide hollow of Amudaria lies on the border with Afganistan. To the east lie the chains of Tian Shan and Guissar-Alay. Their summits culminate 4 643 m in height.
The Uzbeks name the foothills of the rugged hills as adyrs. The adyrs are from 400-500 to 1000-1200m below sea level. In the adyrs, the summer is very hot and not dry, the winter is from the average cold. Precipitation is almost 300-450 mm. In spring, one can not remove the eye from the red carpet of poppies and tulips, of ixiolirhons which cover vast fields. The usual vegetation of the foothills of the hills is gray, thorny bushes. Of adyrs are the dwelling places of wolves, dains, foxes, jackals, jerboas, zicels, varants, lizards, turtles, hedgehogs, snakes, porcupines, scorpions, cats toqay, phalanges, locusts, phaisans, doves, sparrows , herons, geese, ducks, tits, nightingales, partridges, sparrows, finches, pigeons, larks, ravens, aigles.Des walnut trees, poplars, various herbs and abrisseaux grow there.
Fauna and flora
The nature reserves of Uzbekistan are:
- The BadayTuqayse finds in the bass of Amou-Daria, on its right bank. In Karakalpakistan. It was founded in 1971. Its surface area is 6462 hectares.
Its climate is temperate, the summer is hot and dry, the winter is of the average cold. The
Average temperature of winter is + 11º, summer is + 26º. The precipitations
Are close to 80 mm.
The wildlife of the reserve includes nearly 91 species of birds, 15 species of
Mammals, 15 species of fish. The brushwood of tugay occupies 70%
Of its surface area.
A large number of birds like the flycatcher, the reds-prefer these nesting places. The birds such as mesanges, nightingales, partridges, sparrows, goldfinches, blue pigeons, crested larks, kestrels, turtle-bass, owls, owls with large ears, large chickadee Bukhara, field sparrow, Khiva pheasant, ravens, eagles, magpies are inhabitants of this reserve.
There are bears, wolves, dwarfs, foxes, jackals, gerboises, zicels, wolves. Variants, lizards, turtles, hedgehogs, snakes, turtles, porcupines, scorpions, tougay cats, phalanges, locusts are everywhere. Many species of fish live in the waters of the Amou-Daria. And shrubs make up the flora of this reserve.
- The Zarafshon Reserve was founded in 1975. It is located in the valley of the Zerafshan River and has 2352 hectares of which 868 are covered with forests, tugai.It lies in the territories of the Bouloungour and Djambay regions of the province of Samarkand Its climate is continental, subtropical, summer is hot and dry, winter is from the cold. The average temperature of winter is -o, 9º, summer is + 27.4º. Precipitation is close to 300 mm.
Poplars, hawthorns, willows grow there. You can see wolves, dwarfs, foxes, jackals, gerboises, zicels, varants, lizards, turtles, hedgehogs, serpents, porcupines, scorpions, tougay cats, phalanges, locusts, phaisans, doves, sparrows, herons, geese , Ducks. 170 species of birds, 17 species of mammals and six species of fish are recorded in the reserve. Among the birds, we can mention blackbirds, kingfishers, larks, crested, field sparrows. The nightingale of tougay spends the summer there. Gray and white herons, hawks, gray crows and blackbirds winter there. Since 1995, Bukhara deer have been reproduced. In 2005, the first group of deer came out of the aviaries.
- The Zomin Reserve was founded in 1960 to preserve the unique forests of firs, their fauna and flora. It is located in the northern part of the western Turkish chains, in the province of Djizak and has 21,735 hectares. Of the forests there are 11322 hectares. Its climate is temperate. The average temperature of the winter is -5,9º, the summer is +15, 9º. Precipitation is close to 400 mm. Its fauna includes 40 species of animals, more than 150 species of birds. Lynxes, bears, wolves, dwarfs, foxes, jackals, gerboises, zicels, wolves, varants, lizards, turtles, hedgehogs, serpents, porcupines, scorpions, phalanges, and locusts are found in every step. Birds such as mesanges, nightingales, partridges, sparrows, goldfinches, pigeons, larks, ravens, eagles, magpies, turtle doves, sparrows, herons, geese, ducks
Are residents of this reserve. The flora contains 700 species of plants. There are forests of walnut, pistachio, juniper, poplar, willow. Tulips, poppies, barberry, various herbs and shrubs compose the flora of this reserve and enjoy the eye in summer.
4.The Guissar Reserve, founded in 1983, is located in the Zarafshon Mountains in the province of Kashkadaria. It has 80,986.1 hectares of which 1,2203 h are covered with forests, 27,450 h are occupied by grasslands. Carry vestiges of life on Earth, 300-400 million years ago. Its climate is fairly continental and subtropical. The average temperature of the winter is -5, º, of the summer is + 18º. Precipitation is close to 600 mm. It is a unique geological reserve. Its fauna and flora are rich. The flora of the reserve includes more than 870 species. The fauna is presented by 140 species of animals, 21 species of mammals and 120 species of birds, including species included in the Red Book as royal eagle, bearded bird, dwarf eagle. There are traces of the animals that lived 300-400 thousand before JCO. There are lynxes, bears, wolves, dwarfs, foxes, jackals, jerboises, zicels, varants, lizards, turtles, hedgehogs, serpents, porcupines, scorpions , Phalanges, locusts, long-tailed marmots
Birds, sparrows, ravens, eagles, magpies, turtle doves, turkeys, sparrows, herons, geese, vultures, black condors, condors of snow, Grand duke and a great quantity of the phaisans.
There are forests of walnut, pistachio, juniper, poplar, willow. Tulips, poppies, barberry, various herbs and shrubs are of great quantity. This reserve includes mountains and caves, karst caves, streams, waterfalls, small glaciers. In its southern part are the famous Amir Timour cave, its subterranean lake, its stalactites and stalagmites, a rock with dinosaur traces.
At the altitude of 1800-2400m we find the sapin (artcha) of Zérafchan. Its flora also includes Turkestan maple, barberry, rose hip.
5.The reserve Surxondaria was founded in 1987. Two reserves Kukhitang and Aral -Paygambar have been assembled and become the reserve Sourkhondaria.It is not far from the city Termez. The Kukhitang Reserve was founded in 1987 in the Kukhitang Mountain Range. It has 24,583 hectares.
Its flora contains more than 800 species of plants. Nearly 290 species of birds and more than 20 species of animals live there, including species included in the Red Book. The Aral-Paygambar reserve was founded in 1971 (near the State border). It has 3093 hectares of which 964 are forests, the rest of the area includes deserts, scrub brush. Its flora contains more than 170 species of plants. Nearly 150 species of birds and more than 16 species of animals live there.
Its climate is subtropical and dry. The average winter temperature is -0º, summer is + 28º-30º. Precipitation is close to 300-400 mm.
Woods of walnut, pistachio, juniper, poplar, willow, tulip, poppy, barberry, various herbs and abrisseaux are under the defense of the State. Here only plants such as the wild vine, euphorbia, are found. This reserve is also inhabited by lynx, bears, wolves, dwarfs, foxes, jackals, gerboises, zicels, varants, lizards, turtles, hedgehogs, serpents, porcupines, scorpions, phalanges, locusts, phaisans, turtledoves, sparrows, herons , Geese, nightingales, partridges, sparrows, goldfinches, pigeons, larks, ravens, eagles, magpies which are under the defense of the state. In this reserve there are traces of ancient animals and the dinosaur, Archaeological monuments. In the southern part of Bausountaou, one discovered the cave Tashik -Tach where the skeleton of a boy Neandertal is found.
6.The Nurata Reserve was founded in 1975. It is located in the western part of the Djizak region on the northern slope of the Nurata Mountains. Its climate is continental and dry. The average temperature of the winter is -1,8º, the summer is +29,4 º, the precipitations are near to 250-550 mm. It has 17752 hectares.2529 hectares are covered with forests. Ten small and large streams cross this reserve. They do not dry out in summer.
More than 650 species of plants grow there. The fauna is presented by 30 species of mammals and 160 species of birds, including species included in the Red Book. Lynx, bears, wolves, dwarfs, foxes, jackals, gerboises, zicels, varants, lizards, turtles, long-legged hedgehogs, Severtsev sheep, snakes, hammer, porcupines, hare, multicolored erix, ophisaur. , Royal eagles, phaisans, turtles, sparrows, herons, geese, birds like mesanges, nightingales, partridges, sparrows, goldfinches, pigeons, larks, ravens, magpies find shelter in this reserve.
7.The Tchatkal Reserve was founded in 1947. It is located in the Tchatkal Mountains. It has 45739 hectares. Its climate is continental. The average winter temperature is -16 º, summer is +23.5 º. Precipitation is almost 680-900 mm. The territory of the reserve is divided into two areas: Bachkysylsay and Maydantal. It is difficult to reach the Maydantal, you only go on horseback or on foot. Its vegetation includes more than 1060 species. Its fauna has 168 species of birds, 32 species of animals. Slopes are almost covered by two species of artcha (pine scrub). You can see black currants, Turkestan rowan, cherry, pistachio. In the wood, we find the poplar of fgan, willow, maple of Semenov, walnut, apple of Semenov, plum tree, apricot tree. Its fauna includes
Turkestan lynx, bears, wolves, Siberian mountain goats, stone martes, dwarfs, foxes, jackals, gerboises, varants, lizards, turtles, hedgehogs, snakes, porcupines.
Birds such as black condor, royal eagle, vulture, partridges, ravens, eagles, pieset and many others inhabit this reserve. Different species of fish live in the waters of mountain rivers.
8.The Qyzylkum reserve was founded in 1971, is located in the right banks of the Amu-Daria in the region of Bukhara. . It has 10141 hectares. Its climate is dry and warm. The average winter temperature is -5 º -7º, summer is +28 º -30 º. Precipitation is close to 8-100 mm. Its flora includes more than 200 species of plants. They are: white saxaul, willow, cane brush. And herbaceous vegetation of desert, ephemeral. Its fauna is varied: 197 species of birds, 37 mammals, 23 reptiles. There are wolves, dwarfs, foxes, jackals, gerboises, zicels, varants, lizards, steppe turtles, erix, python, hedgehogs, serpents, porcupines, Bukhara deer, steppe cats, hares and wild boars. Birds such as hawks, royal eagles, kites, ducks inhabit or winter in the reserve.
Carp, barbel, catfish, aspes, rotengles live in the waters of Amou-Daria.
- Zamin National Park was founded in 1976. This park preserves the unique landscape of virgin forests with their flora and fauna. It occupies the northern slopes of Turkestan Ridge. It is located in Zaamin, in the province of Djizak. It has 24110 hectares.The deep canyons, the unforgettable beauty of the cascade Charillak, the plateau Soufa will charm you. The plateau Soufa is located in the central part of the park at the altitude of 2482 m. There are nursing homes, holiday camps, sanas. Children, adults, sportsmen and tourists love to rest there.
- The Ougam Chatkalse National Park is located in the Bostanlik region. It is open for sightseeing and sightseeing. The park includes valleys, steppes of foothills, alpine meadows, glaciers of high mountains. The artificial lake Tcharvak, the slopes Tchimgan covered with snow attract lovers of tourism. The highest peak reaches 3009 m. The slopes of Chimgan are covered with snow from November to July. The Poulatkhan plateau resembles a table with 3 km slopes. The depth of a large cavern reaches 600 meters. Its stormy rivers allow to practice rafting. Ecological tourism is very popular: cycling, horse. At the foot of Chimgan, on the slopes of Kumbel is the Beldersay ski resort and its 3 km trails. At the edge of the artificial lake Tcharvak are hotels, beaches. Its flora includes more than 2200 species of plants. Its wildlife counts 200 species of birds, 44 species of mammals, 16 species of reptiles, 20 species of fish.
The waves comprise 70% of the territory of Uzbekistan. One of the most extensive deserts of Central Asia is the Kyzyl-koum (word for word “red sand”). It occupies much of the territory of western Uzbekistan. To the south the Kyzyl Kum extends to Turkmenistan. The Bo’kantog, Tomditog, Ovminzatog, Quljuqtog, Yetimtog mountains are located at Kyzyl kum. Its vegetation is specific, there are even forests. The Bala Tugai Reserve is about thirty kilometers away, on the banks of the Amou-Daria. The early Mirzachul was formerly known as the “Hunger Steppe”. It was transformed into a fertile land in the late 1950s. Mirzachul extends between the Nourata Mountains and Lake Aydar Kul. There are also delicacies at the Central Fergana in Karchi. In winter it is very cold, up to -40 °, summer is very hot (+ 45 ° to 50 ° or even more). Winter lasts almost two months. The summer includes more than 150 days. The average temperature in July is 28-30 degrees. The maximum of a day passes 46 degrees. At this point the sand rises and can reach 70-75 degrees. Precipitation is very rare. In the desert there are no rivers, but there are large deposits of water in the basement. The fauna and flora of the deserts is very varied, that one could not imagine. Beyond the Aral Sea stretches the plain of Oustiourt. According to the assumptions of geologists this plateau is rich in oil and natural gas, and in other deposits.
The Kysyl-Kum Desert consists of plains located at an altitude of 300m. Its soil is rich in various raw materials. There are deposits of natural gas, oil, gold, copper, asbestos, corundum, graphite, turquoise, limestone. Is not rich in water resources. Two-thirds of the country are vast plains and possess few lakes. Channels have been created.
The fauna of Kyzyl-kum is presented by 687 species of birds, 33 species of mammals, 32 species of reptiles. You can see the wolf, the jackal, the antelope. There are many lizards, snakes and rodents such as jerk, zicels, turtles, porcupines, marmots, mice. The largest lizard is the varan. Its length is from 1.50m to 2m. Their bite is very painful, but not venomous. One must be very careful not to walk them on the tail when they are under the bushes or in the sand. Among serpents one finds erix, pythons, snakes with spectacles. The Naja oxyana cobras are the most venomous. There are also Vipera libetina. Their sizes exceed 1.50 m. Their strong activities fall in the spring. The most venerable insects are the scorpions and the black widow. There are also birds such as gelinotte, pigeon, gay, larks, ravens, magpies, pheasants, pelicans, geese and herons.
The delights are dressed in green from the first days of spring and rejoice the human eye and heart. The spring is not only the sun, the sands. It is in the spring awakens all the vegetation. Tulips, poppies, ranunculus, rhubarb cover the desert. Fatty grasses, thorny bushes are the usual vegetation of the deserts. The most typical plants of the desert and the environment are:
The delightful plant “Qandim” means in Uzbek “the sugar shrub”. Its botanical name is “Calligonum setosum”. This plant is widespread in Central Asia. In April it gives pale red flowers. Its flowers are similar to small balls of down. His life lasts about 25 years. Its robust roots are up to 14 m deep and 10 to 30 m horizontally.
Tamaris and saxaul are trees and shrubs. They resist the unbearable heat and drought of these regions. Saxaoul is a “Haloxylon” (Chenopodiaceae family). Two species of Saxaoul known in Uzbekistan: black Saxaoul (Halozylon aphyllum) and white saxaul (Haloxylon persicum). The saxaoul is about 2 meters to 9 meters high. The diameter of its stem is 20 to 40 cm. Despite the harsh climate he lives between 50 and 90 years. Its deep roots can descend to 16 meters. It plays an important role in preventing the degradation and erosion of sand dunes. Saxaoul, protected by the legislation is listed in the Red Book. It serves as food for cattle and heating for people.
The 2 m high bush with the light gray bark and the young white stems are called “Cherkez” in Uzbek. Its botanical name is “Sa. Salsola arbuscula Pall lsola richteri Karel” The depth of its roots is from 5 to 12 m. Its fruits resemble small nuts.This plant is used to lower high blood pressure.The following plants from the Salsola group grow in Uzbekistan:
1.Salsola arbuscula Pall.-Boyalitch;
2.Salsola gemmascens Pall-Djertezak;
- Salsola lanata Pall-Baliqko’z;
- Salsola paletzkiana Litv.-Tcherkez;
- Salsola paulsenii Litv.-Tuyaqorin;
- Salsola rigida Pall.- Kuyryuk;
- Salsola sclerantha CAM ..- Sho’ra
The roots of the plant “Yantoq” called in Latin “Alhagi pseudalhagi” are up to 2 meters deep and 8 to 15 meters wide. They participate in fixing the desert. It serves food for herbivores. It is used in medicine against respiratory diseases, digestive system, rheumatism and hemorrhoids.
A “Quyonsuyak” or “Acacia des sables” shrub in French, “Ammodendron conollyi” in Latin is used as respiratory and diuretic stimulants. Thanks to its extensive root system, it resists the invasion of sand. The size of this decorative desert tree is 3 or 7 meters. Its red trunk is 6 to 30 cm in diameter. Its roots are 4 meters deep and 15 meters wide. It has purple flowers.
The plant “Maskhar”, which the French call “Safflower of the dyers” or “Saffron of the dyers” known in botany under the name “Carthamus tinctorius L.”. It measures 30 to 180cm high. Usually each branch has one to five heads of orange, yellow or red globular flowers containing 15 to 20 seeds per head. It serves as a purgative, diuretic, cholagogue in medicine.
The plant “Dorema sabulosum Litv.” Named by the Uzbeks “Iliyan” is the size of 2 m high. Its fleshy stem is usually covered with frozen drops of gum (continued insect bites). At the end of the fifth year, in the middle of its stem, grow branches that give yellow and greenish yellow flowers in April. It serves as an expectorant, spasmodic, diuretic in medicine.
The leaves and external appearance of the plant “Kavrak” remind the French “The Thistle.” Its Latin name is “Cousinia resinosa Juice. Its size can reach 75 cm, its stem is branched, its roots are pivoting, its large leaves are white-green and spiny on the margins, its body is full of thorns. It is a sign of degradation of the soil.
“Peganum Harmala” according to botanists, but the French call it “Harmal” or “the street of Syria”. The Uzbeks name it “Isiriq”, “Adrasmon”, “Adraspan”, “Hazor-u aspand”. Even “Avesta”, sacred book of Zoroastrians describes this herb as a tranquilizer and purifying. According to the legends of the Sakas, the Saka Haumavarga tribe inhabiting Central Asia knew the recipe for the sacred drink “Soma (Haoma)”, the elixir of eternal life. The Uzbeks and other peoples of Central Asia believe that its branches protect from evil eye, its ensents chase evil spirits and bear luck. This herb has many healing qualities. The Harmal is 40 cm high. The alternate green leaves are divided into narrow strips. Their smell is disagreeable if they are crushed. It has spherical capsules with three chambers containing many black angular seeds.
Another medicinal plant spread in the deserts is Kovrak in Uzbek, the botanists call it “Ferula assa foetida”,. The French call it “Ferule fétude” or “Ase fétude.” This plant has cylindrical and deep roots, rich in a milky juice. Its stem is fleshy and thick. Its leaves are like a rosette having maxumum 80 sm long, divided into large lobes and covered with ashy hair. Its flowers are joined in umbels of umbels and have five petals and five stamens.
The ephemeral plant “Carex” or “Carex pachysytylis Gay.” It is named by the Uzbeks “Qoraboch” (black head) or “Rang”, “Laîche” in French. This plant grows in the desert, on the dunes. The depth of its roots is 1.4m, its horizontal form is 30 cm. Its root system plays an important role in the fixation of sands. It is a grass with a stem, with acute leaves by the edges.
The plant “Shuvoq” is known in botany under the name “Artemisia diffusa. “. Its French name is “l’armoise”. It is a perennial plant, 50 cm high. The depth of its roots is 2.5 m. She lives 25 years. Its flowers are light yellow, its stems and leaves are covered with silver down.
The plant “Kiyikpanja (leg of roe deer)”, known in botany under the name “Astragalus alopecias” (Astragalus apepecias.) It has the size 60 and 100cm, its roots grow up to 2 m deep. Is covered with white down.
The medicinal plant “Iris Songarica Schrentk” is called by the Uzbeks “kampirsoch”, “qaraqosh”, kirkasoch “,” kamchalak “,” taka soqol “. Its rhizomes are 30-60 cm deep. Its roots in the form of threads go down to 1.5 m deep, and extend up to 80 cm to horizontal. Its stem is cylindrical, the length of its leaves reach 25 cm. It grows in the form of tuft.
The ephemeral plant “Poa Bulbosa” or “Bulbous Pasturin” is named by the Uzbeks “Yarpagon” or “Qunghirbosh”. This plant grows in February and dries up towards the beginning of May. This is one of the main surprises in the deserts of Uzbekistan
The plant “Sigir quyruq”, in French “the cow’s tail” is named in Latin “Verbascum songoricum Schrenk”. It is known in France as “Bouillon -blanc”. Its stem is covered with silver down and grows straight, its Bisexual flowers are dark yellow in April-May. Its petals and leaves are used against respiratory diseases
The medicinal plant “Phlomis thapsoides Bge” whose name Uzbek is “Qo’ziquloq”, in French “Oreille d’aigneau”. The size of this plant is between 30 and 60 cm. It has swiveling roots. Its straight stem with multiple beanches is fluffy. It blooms in the month of April.
The plant “Ilon-tchup” is translated “poisonous stick”. Its Latin name is “Cistanche flavia”. It is a stick 10 cm in diameter and about a meter deep against the trunk of a shrub. No branches, no leaves, no roots, but a trunk covered with yellowish flowers. It is a parasite with long vertical stem underground that attaches to the roots of another plant. It grows in the sands of Kyzyl kum.En traditional Chinese medicine it is used against urinary and gynecological diseases.
The ephemeral plant “Evirbosh” in French “le Drome des toits” has short life. It dries towards the end of May. Its size varies between 15 and 40 cm.
The plant “Boyimodaron” is known in botany as “Achillea nobilis”. The height of its multiple stems can reach 50 cm in height. It is a medicinal plant used against bleeding, its odor stimulates the appetite.
The plant “Kovar” or “Kovul” is called in French “le Câprier épineux”. Its downy branches are covered with innumerable thorns and reach 2m in length. The Câprier has single leaves of 6 cm long and white flowers. Its fruit ripens in September. The shape of a small oval of its fruit (the capron) reminiscent of a miniscule watermelon. It is full of a sweet and floury red pulp containing a lot of seeds. This medicinal plant is used against bronchial asthma, against diseases of the digestive system, against hepatitis.
The plant “Bouritikan”, in French “L’épine de loup”, is known in botany as “Acanthophyllum borszxczowi Litv.” It forms the thorny hemispheric cushions 30 cm high and purple flowers.
The ephemeral grass “Carex” or “Carex physodes M.B ..” is named by the Uzbeks “Iloq”. It grows in the desert, on the dunes. The depth of its roots is 60cm. Its root system plays an important role in the fixation of sands. It is a grass with a stem or several stems on the same foot.
The ephemeral plant “Koelpinia linearis Pall.” Is named by the Uzbeks “Qarg’a tirnoq (raven greenhouse)”. Its height is 20 cm. It produces small yellow flowers. At the end of April its fruit ripens and the plant dries up. It is used for heart disease (stenocardia), against meteorism.
The plant “Yapir” or “Sariq bosh (yellow head)” is known in botany under the name “Senecio subdentatus. “. It is a plant 30 cm high. It gives yellow flowers in March and April. Its stem is branched and glabrous. It is used to regulate blood pressure, diuretic, cholagogue in medicine.
The spherical plant “Buyurgun” is known in botany under the name “Nabasis salsa”. It is 50 cm high. Its fleshy, cylindrical, glabrous, turgid stem has strongly branched branches.
The perennial plant “Convolvulus hamadae V.Petr.is named by the Uzbeks” Partek “or” Petchek “. It is the bindweed of steppes with creeping stems at a height of 10-45 cm. Its leaves are narrow, linear, its flowers are white or pale pink. It serves against urological diseases), and as purgative.
The perennial plant “Rheum turkestanicum Janich.” Is named by the Uzbeks “Ravoch” which translates into French as “rhubarb”. It is an edible and medicinal plant. It has broad leaves and red or yellowish flowers in April. Its size can reach 60 cm high. It serves as purgative.
In 1985, the two-volume Uzbek Red Book was published. The wild pear of Turkestan, Zerafshan onion, mountain onion, wild grenadier, Uzbek tulip, fuguier, astragalus of Bukhara and Omonqora, vines Wild, carnations, jusquiame, hyacinth, djuda, tulip of Chimiyon, flower of salim entered the first volume of the “Red Book”. The second volume of the “Red Book” includes bat pilgrim,
Turkish owls, gheyrans, Turkestan otters, lynx, leopards, Oustyurt and Bukhara sheep, storks, white and black, red goose, hawks, eagles, cranes, varans, Turkestan cobra, brown marmots, urs Guissar, mountain goat, wild boar, deer, partridge.
Lakes and rivers
The biggest rivers of Uzbekistan are the Syr-Daria and the Amu-Daria. The word “daria” means “sea” or “very large river”. Syr-Daria is the longest river in Uzbekistan. It is known as the Ixart or Jaxartes,
The Arabs called it Sayhoun. Its length is 3019 km. It takes its source in the mountain of Tian Chian. Naryn and Kara-Daria are two sources of this river.
It flows to the valley of Fergana and then crosses the south of Kazakhstan, the Kyzyl-kum desert, and flows into the Aral Sea. It irrigates the lands of all Central Asia and the cities of Kokand, Khodjent, Kyzyl-orda and Turkestan along its route.
Amu-Daria is the second largest river in Uzbekistan. The Graces called it Oxus. It is called Jayhoun in the geography of the Arab-Muslim Middle Ages. The Amu-Daria is born in the Hindu-Kush mountains, crosses Pamir, then the Karakum desert and the Hunger Steppe, forms a delta and flows into the Aral Sea. The Vakhch from the north-east (Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan) and the Piandj from the plateau of Pamirà in the east form Amou-Daria. Its length is 2,620 km. But it is navigable on 1,450 km only. It serves as the border with Afghanistan. This river irrigates the area of Khiva and flowing towards the Aral Sea forms a delta along 160 km. The Amu-Daria and the Syr-Daria throw themselves into the Aral Sea.
Europe knew the Amou-Daria by the information of the French geographer Thibaut Viné in 1876.
There are also a multitude of rivers the biggest of which are:
Zerfshan is born in the mountains of Zerafshan. Its length is 740 km.
Kashkadaria is born in the mountain ranges of Hisor. Its length is 332 km.
The Ohangaron is born in the mountain ranges of Qurama and Chotqol. Its length is 236 km.
The Surxondaria is born in the mountain ranges of Hisor. Its length is 196 km.
The Sheroboddaria is born in the mountain ranges of Hisor. Its length is 186 km.
The Qoradaria is born in the mountain ranges of Alay .. Its length is 180 km.
The Chirchik is born in the mountains of Tyanshan. Its length is 174 km.
The largest lakes are: Aral, Arnasoy, Aydar, Tuzkon, Dengizko’l, Somonko’l, Kunjakul, Shurkul, Axsikentkul, Damkul, Sariqamish, Sudochie, Ziyokul, Ulugchurkul, Abilkul, Oqkul, Buztovkul. The largest water reservoirs are: Tuyamuyin, Chordara, Qayroqqum, Chorvoq, Kattakurgan, Tuyabugiz.
The Aral Sea
The Aral Sea is an ancient saltwater lake of Central Asia. It is located between 43 ° and 46 ° north latitude and between 58 ° and 62 ° longitude. It is shared by Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan. Two rivers, the Amu-Daria and the Syr-Daria, flow into the Aral Sea. Its Uzbek name Orol means “island”. Until the 1960s the blue waters of the Aral Sea were pure. Their temperature in summer could reach 26 ° C to 27 ° C on the surface (but only 1 ° C to 3 ° C in the bottoms of the west coast). The sea was caught by the ice until the beginning of May. Precipitation is low in this region between 130 and 140 mm / year on average, the evaporation is very high (1 000 mm / year). But two great rivers balanced the hydrological balance of the sea. Its surface area was 66 458 km2.
In the 1960s the Aral Sea was the fourth lake in the world. According to the Soviet decision, the waters of the Amu-Daria and Syr-Daria rivers were used to irrigate new cotton fields. The Soviet authorities knew that the diversion of the waters of these large rivers would be the cause of the drying up of the The Aral Sea. More than forty years the sea has been deprived of the water of its tributaries. More than 200,000 km of irrigation canals, 120000 km of drainage pipes, 90000 pumping stations and 50 reservoir dams have been built. In 1987, the sea was divided by two. It is the man is guilty of the biggest ecological disaster that suffers the Aral Sea. This diversion of the waters of the rivers to produce cotton becomes the cause of one of the greatest environmental catastrophes of the twentieth century.
Until the end of the 20th century the sea level dropped by more than 16 m, and its shores retreated by 80 km. The shrinking of the Aral Sea changed the climate. The air becomes drier, the coldest winters, the hottest summers. The soil is degraded by salty winds and dust storms. These dust storms are called “the dry tears of the Aral Sea”. This degradation is the cause of the accelerated melting of the glaciers of the peripheral mountains and the climatic changes of the Fergana valley as far as Georgia and even on the Arctic coast. The drying up of the sea is the cause of many diseases. Since 1960, the Aral Sea has lost 75% of its surface, 14 meters deep and 90% of its volume. All this increased the salinity of the water. The number of species of birds and mammals has disappeared in fifty years. The muskrat, known for its fur, has disappeared. . Previously there were 173 species of animals, but today 38 species from the Aral Sea have survived.
The salinity of the water is the cause of the loss of the majority of fish species. The number of fish species decreased from 32 to 6. Caravans of the boats are found on the old seabed.
The World Bank financed the construction of the Kok-Aral concrete dam and dykes to raise the water level. Work began in 2003. The construction of the dam finished in 2005. The sea has already regained 30% of its surface. According to data from specialists the level of the northern part of the Aral Sea has risen by six meters in 2009. In 2012 Uzbekistan planted 300,000 hectares of saxaul (shrub) .These shrubs produce 167,000 tons of oxygen Absorbing 230,000 tons of CO2. This reduces the greenhouse effect.
The Uzbek cuisine has 100 types of pilaf, 60 kinds of soup and 20 types of shashlik.
Och or Plov
The national dish of Uzbek is och, or plov in Russian, based on sautéed rice and mutton and beef. There are about 100 recipes depending on the region.
In Bukhara, the rice is not jumped, but boiled. In the valley of Ferghana, it is accompanied by leaves of vines stuffed with meat and onion. Elsewhere, it will be complemented with garlic, chickpeas or grapes. The dish is traditionally cooked on Friday, as well as for all great occasions: navrouz (New Year’s Day), end of Ramadan, wedding, birthday … In the tchaikhanas bazaars, one finds every lunch.
RICE PLOV WITH POICHICHE
To prepare plov of rice with poichiche it takes 1 kilogram of rice, 200 grams of poichiche, 300 grams of meat, 250 grams of fat (oil), 400 grams of carrot, 2 onions, salt and spices , Pepper) to your taste.
On the day before it is necessary to sort the poichiche and soak it in cold water for 10-12 hours. The rice is soaked in hot salted water for 2 hours. Peel and cut round the onion. Cut the carrot out of the straw, the meat into pieces. The oil is heated in the casserole and the pieces of meat are browned, then the onion is added and roasted until the color changes. Place the carrot and poichiche and add water to cover the contents of the casserole
Fully. One cooks for one hour, the poichiche must become soft. Then add salt and spices. We put the rice on the grill and we equal it, we add water to cover the rice. It is necessary to reinforce the fire to obtain the bubbling. After evaporation of the water, reduce the fire and lower the lid for 20-25 minutes.
Then the contents of the casserole are mixed and the meat cut into small pieces. It is served on a large plate, putting meat on top of the rice.
The chachlik, the word “six pieces”. These are skewers consisting of six pieces of meat. They are also found in beef, mutton, or chicken. The kebabs or – roast meat – are pieces of minced meat, molded by hand around the skewer. Chachliks and kebabs are eaten with onion in vinegar. The meat is slightly spiced or scented with coriander.
An important part of the traditional table of Uzbekistan is the national bread-cake. The bread-cake is broken by the hands. From antiquity the bakers prepare the patties to the stove of clay, after which the bread succeeds good and crunchy.
The soups have an important place in the national kitchen of Uzbekistan. They are rich in vegetables: carrots, beets, onions and greens. The most popular soups are: Mastava, Moch-horda, Manpar and Shourva.
To prepare chourva, the broth requires 600 grams of meat with bones, 500 grams of rave, 2 carrots, 2 potatoes, 2 tomatoes, 1 pod of pepper, salt to your taste. 2 hours after filtering and put the meat and all vegetables peeled and cut into pieces and dirty at the end of cooking.
The Uzbeks serve the broth in Uzbek bowls and put the vegetables with meat separately on a plate.
In the Uzbek cuisine there are also Uyghur and Kazakh specialties. The most common are the Laghmans (pasta that is eaten in soup)
The Manty Steamed
Of Raviolisen soup
(A specialty of the Kazakh nomads).
Tea, green or black, is the must-drink in Uzbekistan. It is served at all hours of the day. Serving tea is all a ceremonial. It is poured three times into a cup and poured each time into the teapot. These three repetitions symbolize loy (clay), moy (fat) and tchai (tea) or water. The first quenches the thirst, the second isolates the cold and the danger, the third extinguishes the fire. The cups are never filled. The cups full of thesignify it’s time to leave for the guest. The teapot or cups should be taken or given from the right hand.
The culture of Uzbekistan is one of the oldest in the world. National music, dances and painting, national cuisine and clothes make up the culture of Uzbekistan. The national music of Uzbekistan is characterized by the variety of genres and subjects. The dances in different regions of Uzbekistan are distinguished from each other. The music and dances of Uzbekistan have been known since ancient times. The development of national painting began many centuries ago.
Music plays an important role in the life of man. The written data of 2 millennium BC testify to the musical heritage of the Uzbek people. The history of Uzbek music is very rich. Each epoch has remarkable singers and performers of all instruments.
We admire ancient wall paintings by Dalvarzin-tepa and Afrasiab with musicians and dancers. The encyclopedists of Central Asia, such as Farabi, Avicenna, Khorezmi, Djami, etc., devoted their treatises to music. The musical culture of Uzbekistan grew, keeping its originality. National and professional Uzbek music is divided into 4 main styles according to the ethnic community: Khorezm, Fergana and Tashkent, Bukhara and Samarkand, and Surkhandarya . Uzbek music impresses and leaves no one indifferent. We have learned music and folk music. The songs “Quchiq” of the Uzbeks are the songs of life. It consists of the verses of one or two stanzas of the poetic text and a melody of a small scale. The “lapar” and “yalla” are also songs with couplets structures. Uzbek music underwent a great Russian influence and a Westernization under the Soviet era.
Scholarly music is inherited from Islamic culture. The art of interpretation of maqoms dates from the fifteenth century. The maqoms are very close to Uyghur music and Tajik music. There are several regional schools of maqom such as:
In Bukhara, the shash maqôm (Buzruk – Dugôh – Irôq – Navô – Rôst – Segôh),
In Ferghana, the tchahôr maqôm (Bayot – Tchahôrgôh – Dugôh-Husayni – Gulyôr-Shahnôz),
In Khorezm, the altiyarim maqôm contains in addition to the shash maqôm: Panjgôh.
The term maqôm designates a cycle or sequence of movements.
Shashmaqom is a unique blend of vocal and instrumental music, melodic and rhythmic idioms, literature and aesthetic concepts. It includes several local diversities. One performs it solo or by a set of singers and an orchestra composed of instruments with bow, string, percussion and wind. A vocal part (nasr), composed of two very complex series of songs followed the instrumental introduction. Musical theory, poetry, mathematics, Islamic science and Sufism plays a major role in the evolution of Shashmaqom since Less ten centuries. The origin of the Shashmaqom goes back to the pre-Islamic period. The maqom and its musical theory in the ninth and tenth centuries have great popularity. Music schools specializing in the study of Shashmaqom were created. Shashmaqom musicians were specially formed. “Shashmaqom” entered the list of 28 ” Oral and Intangible Masterpieces of the Heritage of Mankind “prepared by Unesco Munojat Yultchieva is the first woman in Uzbekistan who sings in this masculine genre, is famous in our country and on international stages and plays The role of ambassador of the musicouzbeke.
Folk music from the Turkish-Mongolian culture of the bards. Szzanda or Khalifa bards always accompany banquets (toy) for weddings. There are several types of edging:
This song is interpreted by the men. The striking of the hands and a movement of the shoulders and the bust are elements of this song.
The dastan is an epic ballad. The bakhchis sing the legendary achievements of Turkish heroes like Görogly, Alpamych under the accompaniment of dotar or ghychak.
The katta achoula:
The katta achoula is a recitative chanting solo or duo. His melody is simple and unmeasured. Ele is amplified by a plate placed in front of the mouth of the hâfiz as a megaphone.
The khalq kui:
The khalq kui is a lyrical song. It is close to the ghazal.
The munajat is a popular song of mystical love. It is close to the ghazal.
Suvara is a sacred song of Khorezm. There are several variations causing trance.
The terma and the yalla:
The terma is a female singing solo accompanied to the doyre during marriages or circumcisions. The yalla is also a female singing solo accompanying the dances to the doyre during weddings.
Winds: nay, karnay, surnay
The karnay is a traditional Uzbek wind instrument from the brass family. It is also found in Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Chinese Turkestan.
It was originally a simple shepherd’s horn. It evolved under Soviet influence towards a modern instrument. It measures from 2 to 2.5 meters long. Its sharp and powerful sound can travel long distances.
The dutar is a long-necked lute made of mulberry wood with two plucked strings.
The Rubab is a long-necked lute with a rounded body and a parchment tray. It has five strings (including two double metal strings) struck with a plectrum.
The Gidjak is a pointed violin with a rounded body with a cylindrical handle connected to four steel strings
The Tambur is a long-necked lute with three metal strings, the melody is given by a metal plectrum on the high string
Rubbed: gidjak, kobouz ,Shocked: tchang. Percussion: doyra, nagara
Raising a healthy generation is one of the priorities of state policy in Uzbekistan. A great deal of attention is devoted to the development of sport in Uzbekistan. A series of resolutions of the Uzbek government is used to develop the sports movement.
The government has created new associations, built sports facilities.
Since independence, Uzbek athletes have won 731 gold medals, 736 silver medals and 845 bronze medals at the Olympic Games, Asian Cup championships, Asian Games and other international competitions.
32 national sports federations of Uzbekistan are members of international federations
The Uzbek National Institute of Physical Culture trains specialists in physical education and sport. Each year, it trains about 2,000 students. The University prepares physical education teachers and sports coaches.
The Asian Boxing Championship, the Asian and Oceania Taekwondo Championship, the International Category “A” Tournament in free wrestling, the Asian Junior Artistic Gymnastics Championship and the others are held in Uzbekistan. In 1999, Tashkent became the venue of the first Uzbek national wrestling championship (Courach) .These athletes from 50 countries participated in this championship.522 sports schools for young people, 63 specialized schools of the Olympic reserve, 5 Schools (colleges) of the Olympic reserve,
7 high schools of sports are in charge of the preparation of the sports reserve. High sports school forms national Olympic teams. The 150 qualified specialists train about 2000 athletes of high caliber. They form the basis of national teams in 32 types of sports. Promising and talented athletes train at the Olympic Training Centers at these schools. Physical training occupies a special place in the life of the country. 6.5 million people make up the base of 145,000 teams. At the same time, special attention is given to the sport development of people with disabilities. The Ministry of Social Affairs of Uzbekistan, the Republican Society of Disabled Persons and the Regional Office of the International Red Cross are involved in sport for people with disabilities.
Uzbek sportsmen are famous in fighting sports such as judo, boxing, uniform and Greco-Roman wrestling. The most famous sportsman in the judoka is Abdullo Tangriev. He was Olympic vice-champion in Beijing in 2008.
Football is gaining popularity. The Uzbek national team is in August 2009, the 9th best team of the Asian continent after Australia, Japan and South Korea.
The Uzbeks are aware of the exploits of French football players. The Kuruvchi Tashkent, renamed Bunyodkor bought Rivaldo (golden balloon in 1999). Bunyodkor also recruited former Brazilian star Zico (ex-Fenerbahçe) as coach.
Cyclist Djamolidine Abdoujaparov was one of the best sprinters of the peloton in the early 1990s. He also won at least one stage in the three Grand Tours (France, Italy and Spain). He also has on his record the Belgian classic Gand-Wevelgem. In tennis, the best Uzbek player in the 2000s is Denis Istomin. He has won a few victories over challengers tournaments. He reached the third round of the 2008 Australian Open and beat Lleyton Hewitt in 4 sets.
The national sports are the oulak, and especially the kurach.
The Kourach is an ancient wrestling sport also practiced by the soldiers of Amir Timour. The kourach has experienced a revival since independence. A kurach association has been created. The word “Kurach” translated from Uzbek means “struggle!”. There are two methods: Fergana and Bukhara. At Fergana the wrestlers are taken by the belt. The rules of Bukhara are very reminiscent of those of the Greco-Roman struggle. The Kurach, was born on the territory of modern Uzbekistan three millennia before. Ancient literary sources of the East mentions the Kurach as a singular combat, like public sports distraction.
According to the dastan, the epic poetry “Alpomich” appeared a thousand years before Kurach was a most favorite and most respected sport in Uzbekistan at that time. A great scholar and oriental thinker Avicenna wrote that the exercises of Kurach help a lot Healthy body and mind. The scholars suppose that the Kurach is the kind of the oldest struggle.
In the 9th century AD people living in the territory of present-day Uzbekistan practiced the Kurach as a distraction during traditional festivals, balls and weddings. Later the Kurach became the independent sport. The names of the strongest wrestlers like Pahlavan Makhmoud became legendary among the people. Pahlavan Makhmoud lived in the XII century. His tomb is in Khorezm. It became a sacred place, which attracts many pilgrims. In the 14th century one of the greatest statesmen in human history, Amir Temour, counted the Kourach the essential for the formation of the physical and moral state of his soldiers
Years passed and the Kurach became a favorite and honored tradition among the people who lived in the territory of present-day Uzbekistan. Children inherit love for this struggle of their fathers. Currently in Uzbekistan more than two million people regularly make Kourach.On has not defined the number of enthusiasts of this fight.
The main rule of Kourach is the defense of fighting in a horizontal position. As soon as the knee of one of the wrestlers touches the carpet, the judge stops the fight, the wrestlers begin the fight again from the first standing position. This rule makes Kourach a very dynamic, fast and interesting sport for the general public. The rules of Kourach also prohibit the use of catches above the belt and all painful and stifling procedures.
The Kourach is a genre of the safest fight. The first International Tournament for the President of Uzbekistan was a success. The stadium “Jar” with 30 thousand of places was not able to acceuillir all the amateurs of the Kourach. Early May 1999 Tashkent witnessed the first World Championship in Kourach.
The kopkari or the oulak
Riders compete for a decapitated ram carcass and must bring it against their opponents to the “circle of justice” traced on the ground after making a certain course. Competitions of this type are more rare in Uzbekistan. They take place for great occasions, like Navrouz, the Eastern New Year’s Day. The Oulak – boskatchi is a kind of polo without rule, which is played with the body of a goat – decapitated goat which serves as a kind of balloon. Tourists attend the March competitions during New Year’s Day (the Navrouz) in Central Asia. Here is how the oulak, “one of the oldest Uzbek traditions. The best “chavandozlar” (horsemen) must take the goat from the winner’s hands. The “chavandozlar” meet on a starting line. The referee throws the goat’s body into the arena under the horses’ noses. The Chavandozlar throw themselves forward and each one tries to approach the carcass. A winner manages to catch him and escapes with a cry of victory. All follow him. They managed to get the animal back. Another makes him fall under the feet of the galloping horses. His team-mates, to whom he spends the remains, protect him. His adversaries barred him and seized the sheep at any price. The victory will be for those who succeed in crossing the finish line with the carcass. All the horsemen are against him to take the goat and win the prize, despite the violence of the blows. Finally, one of them will succeed under applause. In the past, breeders selected animals specially trained for the game and many tournaments attracted spectators from far away. The victors of several events became heroes, venerated and respected by the whole community.
Development of children’s sport in Uzbekistan
During the years of independence, children’s sport in Uzbekistan develops within the framework of youth policy and the National Training Program. In Uzbekistan
We regularly organize sports competitions such as:
“Umid nihollari” – among schoolchildren;
“Barkamol avlod” – between high school students and students of vocational colleges;
“The Universiade” – among students of higher education institutions.
In accordance with the Presidential Decree in 2002 the Fund for the Development of Children’s Sport
Was established in 2003. It has been an important step towards the development of children’s sport. Since 2004, the Fund has been included in the system of the Ministry of Public Education of Uzbekistan. The main objectives of the Fund are: the promotion of public policies for the development of physical education and sport among children, the awakening of sport interest among the younger generation, the protection of young people from various harmful effects and its Education in the spirit of patriotism.
In 2009, 174 gymnastic rooms in different schools were built. Since the foundation of the Fund for the development of the sport of children until the year 2009, in 674 schools were opened gymnastics halls.In those years, 178 children’s sports facilities were built and began functioning.
Tennis Tournament of Tashkent
The Tashkent Tennis Tournament is created in 1999 by the President.This is why it has another name »President’s Cup» Its Editions are 16. Its category is International Challenger. Its periodicity is annual. It is happening in Tashkent.
Its participants are 32 players in singles, 16 teams in double (2013) Status of the participants are Professionals
The tournament of Tashkent (Uzbekistan) is a women’s tennis tournament of the WTA and male professional circuit of the CircuitChallenger.It is organized every year since 1999 in September for the women’s tournament, in October since 2008 for the men’s edition, hard and outdoor . A male tournament of the ATP circuit also took place from 1997 to 2002
Craftsmen handed down the secrets of crafts from generation to generation.
The objects of copper cisele, carpets of Bukhara and Khiva decorate the palaces of many European capitals, the apartments of the people. Suzanés are original wall tapestries covered with embroidery in silk thread that strikes your imagination. The doppi or qalpoq are Uzbek national headdresses. The Russians call them tubetaikas. The Chakhrisiabz doppides have a great reputation. These richly embroidered headdresses have won a gold medal at a Parisian exhibition.
The applied arts of Uzbekistan have been popular since antiquity. The works of the applied arts of Uzbekistan are differentiated by its forms, by the decoration.
Architecture, stucco, wood, stone, decorative architecture occupies a large place in the folk art of craftsmen of Uzbekistan. Samarkand, Bukhara, Khiva and other cities of Uzbekistan are world famous for their monuments of architecture. These ancient monuments retain the traces of the professional mastery of painters, architects, calligraphers, engravers, potters.
Book stands, chests, cabinets, buffets, baguiers, pencil cases, coffee tables, musical instruments are the objects of common use in carved wood.
The relief ornamental sculpture always used geometric and vegetable motifs.
The sculpture on wood is divided into three styles of woodcarving: bagdadi, islimi and pargori. Each group differs according to the ornamental motifs, the compositions and the technique of the sculpture. Walnut, plane tree, elm, juniper, mulberry, poplar, apricot, and imported wood: beech, oak, pine.We use trees such as walnut, plane tree, elm, juniper, mulberry, poplar, apricot, , Oak, pine for wood carving. The round table and polyhedra, stools, folding screens, night tables, frames, cabinets, wardrobe holders, buffets, baguers, pencil cases and other decorative objects are adorned with wood painting .
The national painting of Uzbekistan developed many centuries ago. The medieval painting of Samarkand is refined, majestic and solemn. The 14-15 centuries are the centuries of the revival of plastic art. The landscape paintings of the Samarkand mausoleums retain their originality. The portraits of the sovereign, his wives, his sons and his companions in arms, were formerly the palaces of Amir Timour. The works of Samarkand’s painting school are Close to that of Herat.
The illustrations in the treatise of al-Sufi (1437 (The National Library of Paris), a miniature with the portrait of Ouloughbek (Gallery Frir, Vachington), the miniatures of “Khamsa” by Alicher Navoï (1446-1447, (Istanbul, Topkapu saray) is an example.
The art of the miniature at Samarkand and Bukharase developed in the 16th and 17th centuries.
Islam forbade the drawing of living beings. Uzbek painting began to develop in the thirties of the 20th century. Ural Tansikbayev is one of the first painters of Uzbekistan. The fifties of the 20th century are the years of reign of the kinds of portraiture and landscapes in Uzbek painting. Painters like U. Tansikbayev, N.Karakhan, R. Timourov, A.Abdoullayev, C.Abdoullayev, V.Evenko, M.Nabiyev, V.Jmakin, R. Fadeyev, R.Akhmedov, M.Saidov, N. Kuzibayev are the famous painters of this era. The portraits of R. Chariyev, B.Babayev had a reputation in the seventies of the 20th century. After the independence of Uzbekistan Uzbek painting experienced a new development. Many painters have appeared. Painters like L.Sadreddiniv, F.Tachmukhamedov, S.Seityagueev, K.Tursunov, T. Turgunov, T. Kuziyev, T. Xalmirzayev have known each other through their works.
Archaeologists have discovered in the territory of Uzbekistan frescoes, ancient ornamental sculptures and the Middle Ages. Ornamental painting and sculpture in relief have begun to develop for 9-10 centuries. Canons of ornamental compositions of artisans have arrived to this day. Naqqoche is the craftsman of the ornamental frescoes. He is the specialist of the sculpture on stucco and on wood. The Bukhara naqqches of the 19th century had great fame. Currently the artisans of Samarkand, Tashkent, Khiva are known in Uzbekistan. In our days the dynasty of Saidmakhmud Narkuziev successfully uses the style of the fresco of Fergana.
Thickness of lacquer
The miniature of the vegetable motifs adorns the objects made of papier mâche, like the plumbers, binders, chess, boxes, boxes. The miniature is reported on the primer by small brushes using the tincture of gold or bronze in sheet or powder. Varnishes and dyes for papier-mâché are prepared according to varied and compound recipes.
The manufacture of papier mâché and miniature lacquer has been known in Uzbekistan since time immemorial. Especially the school of Samarkand is famous from 14 century. At the Gour Emir mausoleum and at the Bibi Khanoume mosque, the authentic papier-mâché medallions were found in the interior decors of these monuments. The interior dome of the Gour Emir mausoleum is decorated with 998 gilded paper mache elements. 112 authentic elements were used as models in scrupulous restoration work.
The Uzbeks make many objects of common use in coloquints, especially snuffboxes – “nosqovok”. They are different in form, size and decoration. Dyeing, polishing, trimming with precious metal and precious and semi-precious stones in the
Manufacture of fabrics.
Ceramics occupies a special place in the applied arts of Uzbekistan. On the territory of the country the archaeologists discovered specimens of the ceramics of the high antiquity. These are dishes, bowls, vases, jugs, jars of all shapes. They are convenient for use and at the same time are distinguished by finesse. For centuries the inhabitants of our country used pottery. The ceramics of Uzbekistan are characterized by the high quality, the beauty of the forms, the ornamental design, the harmony of the colors. The ceramics of the country is divided into two groups:
Glazed terracotta and glazed ceramics. The ceramic centers of Uzbekistan are: Guijdouvan, Chakhrizabs, Samarkand, Tashkent, Richtan, Khorezm. The last decades the pottery of Gouroumsarai, Denaou, Tchimbai, Karakalpakistan have taken a new lease of life. The ceramics of these centers are divided into two groups according to the colors: blue – white – green and green – brown – yellow. We choose colors according to technical possibilities. In Fergana and Khorezm the alkaline glaze is used, so the colors blue – white – green give sharp and beautiful shades. The green – brown – yellow colors decompose under the alkaline glaze. In Tashkent, Samarkand and Bukhara one uses the lead glaze, the shades of colors green – brown – yellow are very beautiful. Ceramic secrets are handed down from father to son.
Knives with pointed blades of craftsmen from Uzbekistan are known all over the world.
Metal appliques, embroidery, application, and miniature decoration leather sheaths
These knives are called “gouldor pitchok”, which means “the decorated knife”. They are of various forms. You can see knives with narrow or wide blades, straight or curved, with whole or compound handles, made of wood or bone, inlaid or painted. The centers for the production of knives are Tchoust (Fergana) and Khiva (Khorezm).
The art of fabric making of Uzbekistan also has ancient roots. In the second half of 19 century in many towns and villages such as Marguilan, Namangan, Bukhara, Andijan, Samarkand, Kitab, Guijdouvan, Urgout, Becharyk and Many others made various handicraft fabrics: cotton, silk, half-silk, with the design and without, of the compound armor and simple. They were used to make clothes and decorate homes. The most popular fabrics were: cotton and silk velvet; The reps in moire; Delicate and light silk scarves; Multicolored atlases; The covers with soft arabesques. The methods of ornamentation were different. The bekassam and the khan atlas were the most renowned commodities in the Orient. But under Bolsheviks (1917) women were “liberated” in the cotton fields by defending the weaving. This craft was forbidden until the fifties. In the fifties the Soviets began to produce silks indiscriminately in the valley of Fergana. After independence the Uzbek government attracted a lot of attention to fabric making. Currently, the old traditional manufacturing techniques are used. The yarns are colored before weaving. The fabrics are woven by hand. Geometric and floral ancestral symbols, tulips, peppers, poppies, butterflies, peacock tails, scorpions, snakes, frogs, protective animals against the evil eye are the motifs of the khanatlas.
According to a legend about the origin of the ikate fabrics, a young man loved a princess. The father of the princess, the khan of the country, had promised her daughter in marriage to the one weaving the most beautiful and unique fabric of the world. The young man wove day and night fabrics more beautiful than each other. But they did not like the khan. The lover has woven so much as the blood flowed from his fingers. The desperate young man would like to drown himself in the great lake. Suddenly he perceived that his blood was mixed with the water of this lake. His blood intermixed with the reflection of the trees and with the blue of the sky gave an image so harmonious and extraordinary that he decided to reproduce them in his tissues.
He brought this incomparable fabric to the khan. The beauty of this fabric was unequaled.
The astonished khan gave permission to the marriage of the young man and the princess.
Women embroidered huge fabric panels for years. The most used embroidery stitches are: the bosma (satin stitch), the yurma (chain) the iroqi (cross stitch), the khamdouzi (double satin stitch). Uses suzani and oypalak as wall panels.
It is very surprising to see in the suzani and oypalak the circle, the Zoroastrian symbol of the universe in a rectangle. Protectors against the evil eye like snakes, frogs, roosters, scorpions are also the motifs of suzanis with embroidery.
The manufacture of printed canvases was widely developed among the peoples of Central Asia. Uzbeks used daily tablecloths, curtains, blankets, scarves, cloths for dresses, horse shields, and even shrouds. The artisans of this art of Bukhara were renowned. Good articles were also made in the other regions.
Embroidered articles ornamented houses and objects of use. Embroidery had a particular application. The Uzbeks wear national festive clothes and everyday with embroidery.
Since 19 century, Bukhara, Nourata, Chakhrizabs, Samarkand, Djizak, Tashkent, Fergana have become centers of embroidery according to local styles. This art was considered woman.
Embroidery in gold and silver
Gold and silver threads embroidered dresses, turbans, skins, chalvars, shoes and for men and women. Gold embroidery with fine gemstones, metal pieces adorned objects of palace decoration, horse caparones and chabraques. The composition and technique of gold embroidery is level in Uzbekistan. Previously, the drawings were cut on the skin, then they were fixed on the fabric and sewn by the threads of gold and silver. There are more than 30 different seams. Bukara and Samarkand are centers of embroidery in gold and silver.
The tradition of making carpets in Uzbekistan is ancient. According to the finds of archaeologists beyond Uzbekistan it can be assumed that the inhabitants of this country wove the best carpets even in the 6th century BC and are called the carpets of that time The Bactrian carpets. In the miniatures of Bukhara and Samarkand of the sixteenth century we can see the carpets.
Generally, carpets bear the name of their origin or place of sale. For example, the carpets of Bukhara. These carpets are sold in the bazaar of Bukhara, but they are made by the Turkmen tribes. Bukhara was one of the largest centers of carpet sales in Central Asia. These were women and girls who made carpets. The techniques were transmitted from mother to daughter. Before it was considered that it took 25 years of experience to become an accomplished weaver. Women of the villages of Uzbekistan make knotted rugs. The traditions of carpet making in Uzbekistan are preserved and developed. The carpets of Uzbekistan are subdivided into three groups: long hair, short hair and woven carpets.
The treatment of leather has been known since antiquity. The sedentary and nomadic tribes always needed leather products such as clothing, shoes, military and hunting equipment, household utensils, road objects. Peaussiers knew recipes from the manufacture of leather, tanning by natural dyes. The elastic and beautiful leathers were produced. The peasants of Bukhara and Samarkand made the sorrows of the skins of donkeys and horses; Colored morocco of goat and sheep skins; The skins of cattle hides; The leatherwork of the sheepskins. The morocco and the youfte were decorated by impressive stamping. Stamping was used for the manufacture of trunks, chests, and purses and belts.
Uzbek jewelery also has very ancient roots and has not lost its importance in our days. Precious stones such as ruby, emerald, sapphire, pearls, turquoise, cornelian, jasper, coral adorned works in gold and silver. Uzbek jewelry includes bracelets, tiaras, pectorals, earrings, pendants, nose rings, necklaces, chased silver amulets,
Gilded with gold and encrusted with semi-precious stones.
The hospitality and respect of older people are the main features of the Uzbek family. Usually the Uzbeks live in large families made up of several generations, which is why great houses are built on the land. The tea ceremony is the component of hospitality. It is the master and mistress of the house who infuse and pour tea to the guests. If you have accepted lunch or dinner invitations, you should always come in time. We only shake hands with men. One greets when approaching the right hand of his heart and with a simple inflection of the head with the women and the persons seated at a distance. During the handshake traditionally one is interested in health, the state of business, work and at home. Usually women do not sit at the same table with men, so as not to prevent their conversation. It is necessary to take place, which indicates the master and the mistress. The place the most far from the entrance is the most honorable.
The rites of the Uzbek people were formed over the centuries on the basis of the traditions of all the tribes and ethnic groups that were the origin of the Uzbeks. The Uzbek rites are very original and diverse. Many of the rites are related to family life, the birth and education of the child, marriages, funerals. The rites linked to birth and the education of children (beshik-toi, hatna-kilish), marriage (fatiha-toyi, marriage) play an important role in the life of the Uzbeks.
These rites are the mixture of Islamic rites with more ancient rites of the Zoroastrian period. With the arrival of Islam religious Muslim rites have entered the life of the Uzbeks. But the Uzbek Muslims do not consider Friday as the holiday.
Beshik-toyii is the birthplace of the cradle. The first baby rocking is celebrated in the wooden cradle.
This is one of the oldest and widespread rites in Uzbekistan. Usually, the baby is cradled in the cradle on the 7th, 9th, 11th day of his birthday. This holiday depends on ease in the family. This event is widely celebrated in the rich families, but it passes modestly among the families of the small budget.
We only make Beshik-toyi for the first child of the young family. The parents of the mother of the baby prepare Beshik (the cradle) and its necessary belongings. The cakes, sweets, toys, and gifts are prepared for the baby, the parents and the grandparents of the baby. The richly decorated cradle is loaded with gifts to the vehicle. And the relatives of the baby’s mother, under the sounds of national instruments leave for the home of the baby’s parents. Everyone is invited to the rich table and we have fun, listen to the musicians, dance. In the next room the old women swaddling and rocking the child beshik. At the end of the ceremony the relatives and the guests come to the baby to offer him the gifts and throw on beshik candies and money.
When young people decide to marry, the young man’s mother with some women from her entourage goes to the young girl’s house.
January 1st – New Year’s Day
14 January – Day of the defenders of the Fatherland
8 January – International Women’s Day
21 March – Navrouz (New Year in Central Asia)
May 9 – Memorial and Honorary Day
September 1st – Independence Day
October 1st – Teachers’ Day
December 8 – Constitution Day
January 1st – New Year’s Day
New Year – the celebration is celebrated all over the world. In Uzbekistan, as in many other countries, this festival is celebrated as a family. During the New Year, the Uzbeks meet with friends and relatives around a festive table and offer gifts. The symbol of this holiday is Santa Claus, Snow White and the fir tree. In Uzbekistan, the name of Santa Claus is Korbobo ( “kor” in Uzbek – snow, “bobo” – grandfather), and Snow White – Korqiz ( “qiz” – a girl). The eve and the day of the festival itself, all the great places in Uzbekistan are decorated with fir trees. People go out to the parks with their children to celebrate the feast.
14 January – National Day of Defenders of the Homeland
This day is not a holiday in the country. On 14 January 1992, by decision of the Uzbek parliament, all units and formations, military schools and other military units stationed in the country were moved under the jurisdiction of the Republic of Uzbekistan. This was the beginning of the creation of our own armed forces. 14 January was declared in Uzbekistan as the Day of the defenders of the Fatherland. Traditionally this day, the national anthem of the Republic of Uzbekistan is sung in the main square (Independence Square) accompanied by a military orchestra marching solemnly on the spot. The Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces also congratulates all the defenders of the homeland.
8 March – International Women’s Day
In Uzbekistan, March 8 – International Women’s Day is celebrated. March 8 is a public holiday in the country. That day, men say kind words to their grandmothers, mothers, wives, daughters, friends. They give them flowers and gifts. This is the first spring festival.
March 21 – Navrouz
From the earliest period to the beginning of spring, the Uzbeks celebrate Navrouz, in other words, the New Year. The universal symbol of rebirth, Navrouz coincides with the equinox of 21 March. He signs the beginning of the new year.
That day the day is equal to the night. Naturese wakes up the spring equinox day. On March 21 winter comes to an end, the Earth and nature awaken. It is the day of the fecundity of nature, the day of the glory of life over the darkness. The Uzbeks have preserved their pre – Islamic festival of Spring and New Year – Navrouz (from Persian “the new day”.
This feast remains of Zoroastrianism. The Navrouz was celebrated under the era of the Achaemenid Empire in the years 648-330 BC. Today the Navrouz is celebrated widely as the beginning of the New Year. It is a great public feast in Uzbekistan.
The traditions of celebration of Navrouz have not changed for many centuries. We prepare for the party long before: we clean houses, streets and streets, we must wash all the clothes available in the house, we pay the debts. All preparatory things: cooking of the festive dishes, cleaning of the habitat and decoration of the houses of green and flowering branches of the trees, must finish on the eve of the festival, before the rising of the Sun. The most important day of the Party is the first day – March 21st. That day it covers the festive table and offers to all the acquaintances, neighbors and passers-by the dishes “of the new year”. The main dishes of Navrouz are – khalissa and soumalak. They are prepared only once a year – in honor of the Navrouz. The khalissa is prepared from four varieties of cereals by adding cut meat, all the ingredients are cooked to homogeneity. The men are busy preparing the khalissa. Spralak is prepared from sprouted grains of wheat and flour. We start cooking these complicated dishes on the eve of the party. All the women of the large family, of the commune or the neighbors in the buildings of several storeys are grouped around the large cauldrons and all night, in turn stir the dish to prevent it from being burned. Cauldron a handful of small pebbles and nuts to avoid burning the ritual dish. These pebbles and nuts are considered as carriers of luck. According to the belief the one who will find a pebble or a nut “of luck” in his dish will have all New Year’s Success. As the preparation of these dishes requires a lot of time and a lot of physical effort, we sing and dance next to the fire. And in the morning each participant will take home his share of the dish of the common cauldron.
In honor of Navrouz we decorate the table of feast of dishes and products symbolizing the rebirth and the new life. Sertle pilaf, shourpa (shepherd soup), cooked ovine meat and kok-somsa (small paté with primary greenery inside). According to the belief, if the festive table is rich in dishes and desserts, the New Year will be happier and lucky. The days of Navrouz, we visit elderly relatives, friends, neighbors. We organize joyful festivals, party bazaars, sports competitions. Young trees are planted and agricultural work begins.
According to the old rite, the oldest and most respected member of the village carries out the first furrow in the New Year. On feast days, the blessings of the elderly, parents and masters are spotted. It is believed that the feast of Navrouz must be celebrated in order to have abundance and luck all the year to come. According to the belief, on this day the angels descend on the earth and bring luck and well-being to the houses where peace and understanding prevail. That is why we forgive debts, forget revenge and grudges. According to popular legend ‘it is very important who will be your first host. To be lucky and successful, one expects someone honest and generous that day. Under the influence of the Navrouz and Soleilces days-the people indeed become more generous and open.
May 9 – Day of Memory and Honor
On 9 May, the Day of Victory in World War II is called in Uzbekistan “Day of Memory”. During this festival, we greet the heroes who defended their country, the independence and the peaceful life of its compatriots. This day is also dedicated to those who gave his life for the love of his country during the wars and in times of peace.
500,000 people never returned to Uzbekistan after the Second World War. Their names are immortalized in the book of memory and honor. This book consists of 34 volumes.
The older generation does not forget the pain and joy of the day of victory. This festival is very important for the Uzbek people. On May 9, we pay tribute to the dead for the sake of a radiant future in the years of the Second World War. All the inhabitants of Uzbekistan lay the flowers with the eternal flame, and with the monuments.
September 1 – Independence Day
The 1 septembte is the feast of the day of independence. It is an honorable holiday in Uzbekistan. It is the Uzbek national holiday. One celebrates it every year in the country. The independence of Uzbekistan was proclaimed 31 August 1991 in Tashkent in the 7th Extraordinary Session of the Supreme Council of the Republic. This festival is the pride of all the citizens of Uzbekistan. In every town, village and mahalla all, regardless of nation or religion, skin color actively celebrate this holiday. In the parks one can watch the folkloric outings and the public concerts with the dance and the singing.
October 1 – Teachers’ Day
Since 1997, the Uzbeks celebrate the Day of Teachers Day. It is a holiday in Uzbekistan. In Uzbekistan, teachers are deeply respected. On this day, all students and students offer flowers and gifts to their professors to express their gratitude for their hard work, their help and their efforts. Teachers are the second parents of children and youth.
8 December – Constitution Day
The Constitution is the fundamental law of the State. On 8 December 1992, at the 11th session of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Uzbekistan, the Constitution of the Republic of Uzbekistan was unanimously adopted.
December 8, 1992
Was declared as the day of the Constitution of the Republic of Uzbekistan. It is the day of the national holiday.
December 8 is a public holiday. That day is celebrated widely throughout the country. The Constitution of the Republic of Uzbekistan consists of 6 sections, 26 chapters and 128 articles.
This festival is also called Ruza Khaït. It is the feast of spiritual and moral purification. According to Islamic law, it is celebrated on the 9th month of the Muslim calendar of the Hegira. This festival comes after Ramadan. During Ramadan from sunrise to sunset, people who fast do not have to drink, eat, afford bad thoughts. They must be respectful and treat others with kindness. For every Muslim, Ramadan is obligatory. Sick people, children, travelers are an exception. Ramadan lasts 30 days. The last day of Ramadan begins the feast of Aid al-Fitr. This feast lasts three days. But in Uzbekistan we celebrate only the first day.
Kourban Ait (Eid al-Adkha)
This festival is considered to be the biggest Muslim festival. It is the feast of Sacrifice for God. This feast of sacrifice is devoted to the obedience of the Prophet Ibrahim. Prophet Ibrahim decided to sacrifice his son for “Allah”.
But Allah has arrested him and has ordered the sacrifice of animals: sheep, camels, etc. From that day all Muslims sacrifice animals for this festival. Kurban Ait lasts three days. All Muslims celebrate this family holiday. In addition, people must visit the sick and the needy. We visit the parents. The first day of the holiday is declared in Uzbekistan as a holiday.
The Muslim calendar or Hegira calendar (hijri) is a lunar calendar. This calendar counts a year of 12 lunar months. Each lunar month includes 29 or 30 days. One Hegian year has 354 or 355 days. It is shorter than a solar year of about eleven days.
The current year is 1437 of the Hegira. We observe with the naked eye the new moon which signals the beginning of the month for the Muslims. We do not use astronomical calculations. For two centuries, Muslims around the world have been using the Gregorian calendar. This calendar is based on astronomical calculation.
The Muslim calendar includes twelve months of 29 or 30 days: mouharram, safar, rabia al awal, rabia ath-thani, joumada al oula, joumada ath-thania, rajab, chaabane, ramadan, chawwal, dhoual qi’da, dhou al- Hijja.
Each month begins when the first crescent moon end “hilal” is visible. It must be seen before it disappears on the horizon in the twilight gleams of the sunset.
Four months are sacred for lislam are Mouharram, Rajab, Dhou al Qi’da, Dhou al Hijja
Dates of the Muslim holidays 2016 and 2017
The dates of the most popular Muslim festivals are:
Tuesday, December 13, 2016
Laylat al-Miraj (Al-Isra)
Wednesday 4 May 2016
Sunday 23 April2017
Laylat ul Bara’ah
Monday 23 May 2016
Friday 12 May 2017
From Monday 6 June to Wednesday 6 July 2016
From Friday 26 May to Saturday 24 June 2017
Saturday 2 July 2016
Thursday 22 June 2017
Wednesday 6 July 2016
Saturday 24 June 2017
Sunday 11 September 2016
Samedib2 September 2017
Saturday 1 October 2016
Wednesday 20 September 2017
Wednesday, 12 October 2016
Monday, 2 October 2017
The Republic of Uzbekistan is divided into thirteen provinces (in Uzbek: viloyat), a city (shahr) and an autonomous republic of Karakalpakistan (respublika):
- City of Tashkent (in Uzbek: Toshkent Shahri)
- Andijan (Andijon viloyati) – capital: Andijan
- Bukhara (Buxoro viloyati) – capital: Bukhara
- Ferghana (Farg’ona viloyati) – capital: Ferghana
- Djizak (Jizzakh viloyati) – capital city: Jizzakh
- Namangan (Namangan viloyati) – capital: Namangan
- Navoï (Navoiy viloyati) – capital: Navoï
- Kashkadaria (Qashqadaryo viloyati) – capital: Qarshi
- Samarkand (Samarqand viloyati) – capital: Samarkand
- Syr-Daria (Sirdaryo viloyati) – capital: Goulistan
- Sourkhan-Daria (Surxondaryo viloyati) – capital: Termez
- Tashkent (Toshkent viloyati) – capital: Tashkent
- Khorezm (Xorazm viloyati) – capital city: Urgench
- The Republic of Karakalpakistan (Qoraqalpog’iston Respublikasi), – capital: Noukous.