The culture of Uzbekistan
The culture of Uzbekistan is one of the oldest in the world. National music, dances and painting, national cuisine and clothes make up the culture of Uzbekistan. The national music of Uzbekistan is characterized by the variety of genres and subjects. The dances in different regions of Uzbekistan are distinguished from each other. The music and dances of Uzbekistan have been known since ancient times. The development of national painting began many centuries ago.
Music plays an important role in the life of man. The written data of 2 millennium BC testify to the musical heritage of the Uzbek people. The history of Uzbek music is very rich. Each epoch has remarkable singers and performers of all instruments.
We admire ancient wall paintings by Dalvarzin-tepa and Afrasiab with musicians and dancers. The encyclopedists of Central Asia, such as Farabi, Avicenna, Khorezmi, Djami, etc., devoted their treatises to music. The musical culture of Uzbekistan grew, keeping its originality. National and professional Uzbek music is divided into 4 main styles according to the ethnic community: Khorezm, Fergana and Tashkent, Bukhara and Samarkand, and Surkhandarya . Uzbek music impresses and leaves no one indifferent. We have learned music and folk music. The songs “Quchiq” of the Uzbeks are the songs of life. It consists of the verses of one or two stanzas of the poetic text and a melody of a small scale. The “lapar” and “yalla” are also songs with couplets structures. Uzbek music underwent a great Russian influence and a Westernization under the Soviet era.
Scholarly music is inherited from Islamic culture. The art of interpretation of maqoms dates from the fifteenth century. The maqoms are very close to Uyghur music and Tajik music. There are several regional schools of maqom such as:
In Bukhara, the shash maqôm (Buzruk – Dugôh – Irôq – Navô – Rôst – Segôh),
In Ferghana, the tchahôr maqôm (Bayot – Tchahôrgôh – Dugôh-Husayni – Gulyôr-Shahnôz),
In Khorezm, the altiyarim maqôm contains in addition to the shash maqôm: Panjgôh.
The term maqôm designates a cycle or sequence of movements.
Shashmaqom is a unique blend of vocal and instrumental music, melodic and rhythmic idioms, literature and aesthetic concepts. It includes several local diversities. One performs it solo or by a set of singers and an orchestra composed of instruments with bow, string, percussion and wind. A vocal part (nasr), composed of two very complex series of songs followed the instrumental introduction. Musical theory, poetry, mathematics, Islamic science and Sufism plays a major role in the evolution of Shashmaqom since Less ten centuries. The origin of the Shashmaqom goes back to the pre-Islamic period. The maqom and its musical theory in the ninth and tenth centuries have great popularity. Music schools specializing in the study of Shashmaqom were created. Shashmaqom musicians were specially formed. “Shashmaqom” entered the list of 28 ” Oral and Intangible Masterpieces of the Heritage of Mankind “prepared by Unesco Munojat Yultchieva is the first woman in Uzbekistan who sings in this masculine genre, is famous in our country and on international stages and plays The role of ambassador of the musicouzbeke.
Folk music from the Turkish-Mongolian culture of the bards. Szzanda or Khalifa bards always accompany banquets (toy) for weddings. There are several types of edging:
This song is interpreted by the men. The striking of the hands and a movement of the shoulders and the bust are elements of this song.
The dastan is an epic ballad. The bakhchis sing the legendary achievements of Turkish heroes like Görogly, Alpamych under the accompaniment of dotar or ghychak.
The katta achoula:
The katta achoula is a recitative chanting solo or duo. His melody is simple and unmeasured. Ele is amplified by a plate placed in front of the mouth of the hâfiz as a megaphone.
The khalq kui:
The khalq kui is a lyrical song. It is close to the ghazal.
The munajat is a popular song of mystical love. It is close to the ghazal.
Suvara is a sacred song of Khorezm. There are several variations causing trance.
The terma and the yalla:
The terma is a female singing solo accompanied to the doyre during marriages or circumcisions. The yalla is also a female singing solo accompanying the dances to the doyre during weddings.
Winds: nay, karnay, surnay
The karnay is a traditional Uzbek wind instrument from the brass family. It is also found in Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Chinese Turkestan.
It was originally a simple shepherd’s horn. It evolved under Soviet influence towards a modern instrument. It measures from 2 to 2.5 meters long. Its sharp and powerful sound can travel long distances.
The dutar is a long-necked lute made of mulberry wood with two plucked strings.
The Rubab is a long-necked lute with a rounded body and a parchment tray. It has five strings (including two double metal strings) struck with a plectrum.
The Gidjak is a pointed violin with a rounded body with a cylindrical handle connected to four steel strings
The Tambur is a long-necked lute with three metal strings, the melody is given by a metal plectrum on the high string
Rubbed: gidjak, kobouz ,Shocked: tchang. Percussion: doyra, nagara