Wildlife, Flora and National Parks of Uzbekistan
The nature reserves of Uzbekistan are:
- The BadayTuqayse finds in the bass of Amou-Daria, on its right bank. In Karakalpakistan. It was founded in 1971. Its surface area is 6462 hectares.
Its climate is temperate, the summer is hot and dry, the winter is of the average cold. The
Average temperature of winter is + 11º, summer is + 26º. The precipitations
Are close to 80 mm.
The wildlife of the reserve includes nearly 91 species of birds, 15 species of
Mammals, 15 species of fish. The brushwood of tugay occupies 70%
Of its surface area.
A large number of birds like the flycatcher, the reds-prefer these nesting places. The birds such as mesanges, nightingales, partridges, sparrows, goldfinches, blue pigeons, crested larks, kestrels, turtle-bass, owls, owls with large ears, large chickadee Bukhara, field sparrow, Khiva pheasant, ravens, eagles, magpies are inhabitants of this reserve.
There are bears, wolves, dwarfs, foxes, jackals, gerboises, zicels, wolves. Variants, lizards, turtles, hedgehogs, snakes, turtles, porcupines, scorpions, tougay cats, phalanges, locusts are everywhere. Many species of fish live in the waters of the Amou-Daria. And shrubs make up the flora of this reserve.
- The Zarafshon Reserve was founded in 1975. It is located in the valley of the Zerafshan River and has 2352 hectares of which 868 are covered with forests, tugai.It lies in the territories of the Bouloungour and Djambay regions of the province of Samarkand Its climate is continental, subtropical, summer is hot and dry, winter is from the cold. The average temperature of winter is -o, 9º, summer is + 27.4º. Precipitation is close to 300 mm.
Poplars, hawthorns, willows grow there. You can see wolves, dwarfs, foxes, jackals, gerboises, zicels, varants, lizards, turtles, hedgehogs, serpents, porcupines, scorpions, tougay cats, phalanges, locusts, phaisans, doves, sparrows, herons, geese , Ducks. 170 species of birds, 17 species of mammals and six species of fish are recorded in the reserve. Among the birds, we can mention blackbirds, kingfishers, larks, crested, field sparrows. The nightingale of tougay spends the summer there. Gray and white herons, hawks, gray crows and blackbirds winter there. Since 1995, Bukhara deer have been reproduced. In 2005, the first group of deer came out of the aviaries.
- The Zomin Reserve was founded in 1960 to preserve the unique forests of firs, their fauna and flora. It is located in the northern part of the western Turkish chains, in the province of Djizak and has 21,735 hectares. Of the forests there are 11322 hectares. Its climate is temperate. The average temperature of the winter is -5,9º, the summer is +15, 9º. Precipitation is close to 400 mm. Its fauna includes 40 species of animals, more than 150 species of birds. Lynxes, bears, wolves, dwarfs, foxes, jackals, gerboises, zicels, wolves, varants, lizards, turtles, hedgehogs, serpents, porcupines, scorpions, phalanges, and locusts are found in every step. Birds such as mesanges, nightingales, partridges, sparrows, goldfinches, pigeons, larks, ravens, eagles, magpies, turtle doves, sparrows, herons, geese, ducks
Are residents of this reserve. The flora contains 700 species of plants. There are forests of walnut, pistachio, juniper, poplar, willow. Tulips, poppies, barberry, various herbs and shrubs compose the flora of this reserve and enjoy the eye in summer.
4.The Guissar Reserve, founded in 1983, is located in the Zarafshon Mountains in the province of Kashkadaria. It has 80,986.1 hectares of which 1,2203 h are covered with forests, 27,450 h are occupied by grasslands. Carry vestiges of life on Earth, 300-400 million years ago. Its climate is fairly continental and subtropical. The average temperature of the winter is -5, º, of the summer is + 18º. Precipitation is close to 600 mm. It is a unique geological reserve. Its fauna and flora are rich. The flora of the reserve includes more than 870 species. The fauna is presented by 140 species of animals, 21 species of mammals and 120 species of birds, including species included in the Red Book as royal eagle, bearded bird, dwarf eagle. There are traces of the animals that lived 300-400 thousand before JCO. There are lynxes, bears, wolves, dwarfs, foxes, jackals, jerboises, zicels, varants, lizards, turtles, hedgehogs, serpents, porcupines, scorpions , Phalanges, locusts, long-tailed marmots
Birds, sparrows, ravens, eagles, magpies, turtle doves, turkeys, sparrows, herons, geese, vultures, black condors, condors of snow, Grand duke and a great quantity of the phaisans.
There are forests of walnut, pistachio, juniper, poplar, willow. Tulips, poppies, barberry, various herbs and shrubs are of great quantity. This reserve includes mountains and caves, karst caves, streams, waterfalls, small glaciers. In its southern part are the famous Amir Timour cave, its subterranean lake, its stalactites and stalagmites, a rock with dinosaur traces.
At the altitude of 1800-2400m we find the sapin (artcha) of Zérafchan. Its flora also includes Turkestan maple, barberry, rose hip.
5.The reserve Surxondaria was founded in 1987. Two reserves Kukhitang and Aral -Paygambar have been assembled and become the reserve Sourkhondaria.It is not far from the city Termez. The Kukhitang Reserve was founded in 1987 in the Kukhitang Mountain Range. It has 24,583 hectares.
Its flora contains more than 800 species of plants. Nearly 290 species of birds and more than 20 species of animals live there, including species included in the Red Book. The Aral-Paygambar reserve was founded in 1971 (near the State border). It has 3093 hectares of which 964 are forests, the rest of the area includes deserts, scrub brush. Its flora contains more than 170 species of plants. Nearly 150 species of birds and more than 16 species of animals live there.
Its climate is subtropical and dry. The average winter temperature is -0º, summer is + 28º-30º. Precipitation is close to 300-400 mm.
Woods of walnut, pistachio, juniper, poplar, willow, tulip, poppy, barberry, various herbs and abrisseaux are under the defense of the State. Here only plants such as the wild vine, euphorbia, are found. This reserve is also inhabited by lynx, bears, wolves, dwarfs, foxes, jackals, gerboises, zicels, varants, lizards, turtles, hedgehogs, serpents, porcupines, scorpions, phalanges, locusts, phaisans, turtledoves, sparrows, herons , Geese, nightingales, partridges, sparrows, goldfinches, pigeons, larks, ravens, eagles, magpies which are under the defense of the state. In this reserve there are traces of ancient animals and the dinosaur, Archaeological monuments. In the southern part of Bausountaou, one discovered the cave Tashik -Tach where the skeleton of a boy Neandertal is found.
6.The Nurata Reserve was founded in 1975. It is located in the western part of the Djizak region on the northern slope of the Nurata Mountains. Its climate is continental and dry. The average temperature of the winter is -1,8º, the summer is +29,4 º, the precipitations are near to 250-550 mm. It has 17752 hectares.2529 hectares are covered with forests. Ten small and large streams cross this reserve. They do not dry out in summer.
More than 650 species of plants grow there. The fauna is presented by 30 species of mammals and 160 species of birds, including species included in the Red Book. Lynx, bears, wolves, dwarfs, foxes, jackals, gerboises, zicels, varants, lizards, turtles, long-legged hedgehogs, Severtsev sheep, snakes, hammer, porcupines, hare, multicolored erix, ophisaur. , Royal eagles, phaisans, turtles, sparrows, herons, geese, birds like mesanges, nightingales, partridges, sparrows, goldfinches, pigeons, larks, ravens, magpies find shelter in this reserve.
7.The Tchatkal Reserve was founded in 1947. It is located in the Tchatkal Mountains. It has 45739 hectares. Its climate is continental. The average winter temperature is -16 º, summer is +23.5 º. Precipitation is almost 680-900 mm. The territory of the reserve is divided into two areas: Bachkysylsay and Maydantal. It is difficult to reach the Maydantal, you only go on horseback or on foot. Its vegetation includes more than 1060 species. Its fauna has 168 species of birds, 32 species of animals. Slopes are almost covered by two species of artcha (pine scrub). You can see black currants, Turkestan rowan, cherry, pistachio. In the wood, we find the poplar of fgan, willow, maple of Semenov, walnut, apple of Semenov, plum tree, apricot tree. Its fauna includes
Turkestan lynx, bears, wolves, Siberian mountain goats, stone martes, dwarfs, foxes, jackals, gerboises, varants, lizards, turtles, hedgehogs, snakes, porcupines.
Birds such as black condor, royal eagle, vulture, partridges, ravens, eagles, pieset and many others inhabit this reserve. Different species of fish live in the waters of mountain rivers.
8.The Qyzylkum reserve was founded in 1971, is located in the right banks of the Amu-Daria in the region of Bukhara. . It has 10141 hectares. Its climate is dry and warm. The average winter temperature is -5 º -7º, summer is +28 º -30 º. Precipitation is close to 8-100 mm. Its flora includes more than 200 species of plants. They are: white saxaul, willow, cane brush. And herbaceous vegetation of desert, ephemeral. Its fauna is varied: 197 species of birds, 37 mammals, 23 reptiles. There are wolves, dwarfs, foxes, jackals, gerboises, zicels, varants, lizards, steppe turtles, erix, python, hedgehogs, serpents, porcupines, Bukhara deer, steppe cats, hares and wild boars. Birds such as hawks, royal eagles, kites, ducks inhabit or winter in the reserve.
Carp, barbel, catfish, aspes, rotengles live in the waters of Amou-Daria.
- Zamin National Park was founded in 1976. This park preserves the unique landscape of virgin forests with their flora and fauna. It occupies the northern slopes of Turkestan Ridge. It is located in Zaamin, in the province of Djizak. It has 24110 hectares.The deep canyons, the unforgettable beauty of the cascade Charillak, the plateau Soufa will charm you. The plateau Soufa is located in the central part of the park at the altitude of 2482 m. There are nursing homes, holiday camps, sanas. Children, adults, sportsmen and tourists love to rest there.
- The Ougam Chatkalse National Park is located in the Bostanlik region. It is open for sightseeing and sightseeing. The park includes valleys, steppes of foothills, alpine meadows, glaciers of high mountains. The artificial lake Tcharvak, the slopes Tchimgan covered with snow attract lovers of tourism. The highest peak reaches 3009 m. The slopes of Chimgan are covered with snow from November to July. The Poulatkhan plateau resembles a table with 3 km slopes. The depth of a large cavern reaches 600 meters. Its stormy rivers allow to practice rafting. Ecological tourism is very popular: cycling, horse. At the foot of Chimgan, on the slopes of Kumbel is the Beldersay ski resort and its 3 km trails. At the edge of the artificial lake Tcharvak are hotels, beaches. Its flora includes more than 2200 species of plants. Its wildlife counts 200 species of birds, 44 species of mammals, 16 species of reptiles, 20 species of fish.
The waves comprise 70% of the territory of Uzbekistan. One of the most extensive deserts of Central Asia is the Kyzyl-koum (word for word “red sand”). It occupies much of the territory of western Uzbekistan. To the south the Kyzyl Kum extends to Turkmenistan. The Bo’kantog, Tomditog, Ovminzatog, Quljuqtog, Yetimtog mountains are located at Kyzyl kum. Its vegetation is specific, there are even forests. The Bala Tugai Reserve is about thirty kilometers away, on the banks of the Amou-Daria. The early Mirzachul was formerly known as the “Hunger Steppe”. It was transformed into a fertile land in the late 1950s. Mirzachul extends between the Nourata Mountains and Lake Aydar Kul. There are also delicacies at the Central Fergana in Karchi. In winter it is very cold, up to -40 °, summer is very hot (+ 45 ° to 50 ° or even more). Winter lasts almost two months. The summer includes more than 150 days. The average temperature in July is 28-30 degrees. The maximum of a day passes 46 degrees. At this point the sand rises and can reach 70-75 degrees. Precipitation is very rare. In the desert there are no rivers, but there are large deposits of water in the basement. The fauna and flora of the deserts is very varied, that one could not imagine. Beyond the Aral Sea stretches the plain of Oustiourt. According to the assumptions of geologists this plateau is rich in oil and natural gas, and in other deposits.
The Kysyl-Kum Desert consists of plains located at an altitude of 300m. Its soil is rich in various raw materials. There are deposits of natural gas, oil, gold, copper, asbestos, corundum, graphite, turquoise, limestone. Is not rich in water resources. Two-thirds of the country are vast plains and possess few lakes. Channels have been created.
The fauna of Kyzyl-kum is presented by 687 species of birds, 33 species of mammals, 32 species of reptiles. You can see the wolf, the jackal, the antelope. There are many lizards, snakes and rodents such as jerk, zicels, turtles, porcupines, marmots, mice. The largest lizard is the varan. Its length is from 1.50m to 2m. Their bite is very painful, but not venomous. One must be very careful not to walk them on the tail when they are under the bushes or in the sand. Among serpents one finds erix, pythons, snakes with spectacles. The Naja oxyana cobras are the most venomous. There are also Vipera libetina. Their sizes exceed 1.50 m. Their strong activities fall in the spring. The most venerable insects are the scorpions and the black widow. There are also birds such as gelinotte, pigeon, gay, larks, ravens, magpies, pheasants, pelicans, geese and herons.
The delights are dressed in green from the first days of spring and rejoice the human eye and heart. The spring is not only the sun, the sands. It is in the spring awakens all the vegetation. Tulips, poppies, ranunculus, rhubarb cover the desert. Fatty grasses, thorny bushes are the usual vegetation of the deserts. The most typical plants of the desert and the environment are:
The delightful plant “Qandim” means in Uzbek “the sugar shrub”. Its botanical name is “Calligonum setosum”. This plant is widespread in Central Asia. In April it gives pale red flowers. Its flowers are similar to small balls of down. His life lasts about 25 years. Its robust roots are up to 14 m deep and 10 to 30 m horizontally.
Tamaris and saxaul are trees and shrubs. They resist the unbearable heat and drought of these regions. Saxaoul is a “Haloxylon” (Chenopodiaceae family). Two species of Saxaoul known in Uzbekistan: black Saxaoul (Halozylon aphyllum) and white saxaul (Haloxylon persicum). The saxaoul is about 2 meters to 9 meters high. The diameter of its stem is 20 to 40 cm. Despite the harsh climate he lives between 50 and 90 years. Its deep roots can descend to 16 meters. It plays an important role in preventing the degradation and erosion of sand dunes. Saxaoul, protected by the legislation is listed in the Red Book. It serves as food for cattle and heating for people.
The 2 m high bush with the light gray bark and the young white stems are called “Cherkez” in Uzbek. Its botanical name is “Sa. Salsola arbuscula Pall lsola richteri Karel” The depth of its roots is from 5 to 12 m. Its fruits resemble small nuts.This plant is used to lower high blood pressure.The following plants from the Salsola group grow in Uzbekistan:
1.Salsola arbuscula Pall.-Boyalitch;
2.Salsola gemmascens Pall-Djertezak;
- Salsola lanata Pall-Baliqko’z;
- Salsola paletzkiana Litv.-Tcherkez;
- Salsola paulsenii Litv.-Tuyaqorin;
- Salsola rigida Pall.- Kuyryuk;
- Salsola sclerantha CAM ..- Sho’ra
The roots of the plant “Yantoq” called in Latin “Alhagi pseudalhagi” are up to 2 meters deep and 8 to 15 meters wide. They participate in fixing the desert. It serves food for herbivores. It is used in medicine against respiratory diseases, digestive system, rheumatism and hemorrhoids.
A “Quyonsuyak” or “Acacia des sables” shrub in French, “Ammodendron conollyi” in Latin is used as respiratory and diuretic stimulants. Thanks to its extensive root system, it resists the invasion of sand. The size of this decorative desert tree is 3 or 7 meters. Its red trunk is 6 to 30 cm in diameter. Its roots are 4 meters deep and 15 meters wide. It has purple flowers.
The plant “Maskhar”, which the French call “Safflower of the dyers” or “Saffron of the dyers” known in botany under the name “Carthamus tinctorius L.”. It measures 30 to 180cm high. Usually each branch has one to five heads of orange, yellow or red globular flowers containing 15 to 20 seeds per head. It serves as a purgative, diuretic, cholagogue in medicine.
The plant “Dorema sabulosum Litv.” Named by the Uzbeks “Iliyan” is the size of 2 m high. Its fleshy stem is usually covered with frozen drops of gum (continued insect bites). At the end of the fifth year, in the middle of its stem, grow branches that give yellow and greenish yellow flowers in April. It serves as an expectorant, spasmodic, diuretic in medicine.
The leaves and external appearance of the plant “Kavrak” remind the French “The Thistle.” Its Latin name is “Cousinia resinosa Juice. Its size can reach 75 cm, its stem is branched, its roots are pivoting, its large leaves are white-green and spiny on the margins, its body is full of thorns. It is a sign of degradation of the soil.
“Peganum Harmala” according to botanists, but the French call it “Harmal” or “the street of Syria”. The Uzbeks name it “Isiriq”, “Adrasmon”, “Adraspan”, “Hazor-u aspand”. Even “Avesta”, sacred book of Zoroastrians describes this herb as a tranquilizer and purifying. According to the legends of the Sakas, the Saka Haumavarga tribe inhabiting Central Asia knew the recipe for the sacred drink “Soma (Haoma)”, the elixir of eternal life. The Uzbeks and other peoples of Central Asia believe that its branches protect from evil eye, its ensents chase evil spirits and bear luck. This herb has many healing qualities. The Harmal is 40 cm high. The alternate green leaves are divided into narrow strips. Their smell is disagreeable if they are crushed. It has spherical capsules with three chambers containing many black angular seeds.
Another medicinal plant spread in the deserts is Kovrak in Uzbek, the botanists call it “Ferula assa foetida”,. The French call it “Ferule fétude” or “Ase fétude.” This plant has cylindrical and deep roots, rich in a milky juice. Its stem is fleshy and thick. Its leaves are like a rosette having maxumum 80 sm long, divided into large lobes and covered with ashy hair. Its flowers are joined in umbels of umbels and have five petals and five stamens.
The ephemeral plant “Carex” or “Carex pachysytylis Gay.” It is named by the Uzbeks “Qoraboch” (black head) or “Rang”, “Laîche” in French. This plant grows in the desert, on the dunes. The depth of its roots is 1.4m, its horizontal form is 30 cm. Its root system plays an important role in the fixation of sands. It is a grass with a stem, with acute leaves by the edges.
The plant “Shuvoq” is known in botany under the name “Artemisia diffusa. “. Its French name is “l’armoise”. It is a perennial plant, 50 cm high. The depth of its roots is 2.5 m. She lives 25 years. Its flowers are light yellow, its stems and leaves are covered with silver down.
The plant “Kiyikpanja (leg of roe deer)”, known in botany under the name “Astragalus alopecias” (Astragalus apepecias.) It has the size 60 and 100cm, its roots grow up to 2 m deep. Is covered with white down.
The medicinal plant “Iris Songarica Schrentk” is called by the Uzbeks “kampirsoch”, “qaraqosh”, kirkasoch “,” kamchalak “,” taka soqol “. Its rhizomes are 30-60 cm deep. Its roots in the form of threads go down to 1.5 m deep, and extend up to 80 cm to horizontal. Its stem is cylindrical, the length of its leaves reach 25 cm. It grows in the form of tuft.
The ephemeral plant “Poa Bulbosa” or “Bulbous Pasturin” is named by the Uzbeks “Yarpagon” or “Qunghirbosh”. This plant grows in February and dries up towards the beginning of May. This is one of the main surprises in the deserts of Uzbekistan
The plant “Sigir quyruq”, in French “the cow’s tail” is named in Latin “Verbascum songoricum Schrenk”. It is known in France as “Bouillon -blanc”. Its stem is covered with silver down and grows straight, its Bisexual flowers are dark yellow in April-May. Its petals and leaves are used against respiratory diseases
The medicinal plant “Phlomis thapsoides Bge” whose name Uzbek is “Qo’ziquloq”, in French “Oreille d’aigneau”. The size of this plant is between 30 and 60 cm. It has swiveling roots. Its straight stem with multiple beanches is fluffy. It blooms in the month of April.
The plant “Ilon-tchup” is translated “poisonous stick”. Its Latin name is “Cistanche flavia”. It is a stick 10 cm in diameter and about a meter deep against the trunk of a shrub. No branches, no leaves, no roots, but a trunk covered with yellowish flowers. It is a parasite with long vertical stem underground that attaches to the roots of another plant. It grows in the sands of Kyzyl kum.En traditional Chinese medicine it is used against urinary and gynecological diseases.
The ephemeral plant “Evirbosh” in French “le Drome des toits” has short life. It dries towards the end of May. Its size varies between 15 and 40 cm.
The plant “Boyimodaron” is known in botany as “Achillea nobilis”. The height of its multiple stems can reach 50 cm in height. It is a medicinal plant used against bleeding, its odor stimulates the appetite.
The plant “Kovar” or “Kovul” is called in French “le Câprier épineux”. Its downy branches are covered with innumerable thorns and reach 2m in length. The Câprier has single leaves of 6 cm long and white flowers. Its fruit ripens in September. The shape of a small oval of its fruit (the capron) reminiscent of a miniscule watermelon. It is full of a sweet and floury red pulp containing a lot of seeds. This medicinal plant is used against bronchial asthma, against diseases of the digestive system, against hepatitis.
The plant “Bouritikan”, in French “L’épine de loup”, is known in botany as “Acanthophyllum borszxczowi Litv.” It forms the thorny hemispheric cushions 30 cm high and purple flowers.
The ephemeral grass “Carex” or “Carex physodes M.B ..” is named by the Uzbeks “Iloq”. It grows in the desert, on the dunes. The depth of its roots is 60cm. Its root system plays an important role in the fixation of sands. It is a grass with a stem or several stems on the same foot.
The ephemeral plant “Koelpinia linearis Pall.” Is named by the Uzbeks “Qarg’a tirnoq (raven greenhouse)”. Its height is 20 cm. It produces small yellow flowers. At the end of April its fruit ripens and the plant dries up. It is used for heart disease (stenocardia), against meteorism.
The plant “Yapir” or “Sariq bosh (yellow head)” is known in botany under the name “Senecio subdentatus. “. It is a plant 30 cm high. It gives yellow flowers in March and April. Its stem is branched and glabrous. It is used to regulate blood pressure, diuretic, cholagogue in medicine.
The spherical plant “Buyurgun” is known in botany under the name “Nabasis salsa”. It is 50 cm high. Its fleshy, cylindrical, glabrous, turgid stem has strongly branched branches.
The perennial plant “Convolvulus hamadae V.Petr.is named by the Uzbeks” Partek “or” Petchek “. It is the bindweed of steppes with creeping stems at a height of 10-45 cm. Its leaves are narrow, linear, its flowers are white or pale pink. It serves against urological diseases), and as purgative.
The perennial plant “Rheum turkestanicum Janich.” Is named by the Uzbeks “Ravoch” which translates into French as “rhubarb”. It is an edible and medicinal plant. It has broad leaves and red or yellowish flowers in April. Its size can reach 60 cm high. It serves as purgative.
In 1985, the two-volume Uzbek Red Book was published. The wild pear of Turkestan, Zerafshan onion, mountain onion, wild grenadier, Uzbek tulip, fuguier, astragalus of Bukhara and Omonqora, vines Wild, carnations, jusquiame, hyacinth, djuda, tulip of Chimiyon, flower of salim entered the first volume of the “Red Book”. The second volume of the “Red Book” includes bat pilgrim,
Turkish owls, gheyrans, Turkestan otters, lynx, leopards, Oustyurt and Bukhara sheep, storks, white and black, red goose, hawks, eagles, cranes, varans, Turkestan cobra, brown marmots, urs Guissar, mountain goat, wild boar, deer, partridge.
Lakes and rivers
The biggest rivers of Uzbekistan are the Syr-Daria and the Amu-Daria. The word “daria” means “sea” or “very large river”. Syr-Daria is the longest river in Uzbekistan. It is known as the Ixart or Jaxartes,
The Arabs called it Sayhoun. Its length is 3019 km. It takes its source in the mountain of Tian Chian. Naryn and Kara-Daria are two sources of this river.
It flows to the valley of Fergana and then crosses the south of Kazakhstan, the Kyzyl-kum desert, and flows into the Aral Sea. It irrigates the lands of all Central Asia and the cities of Kokand, Khodjent, Kyzyl-orda and Turkestan along its route.
Amu-Daria is the second largest river in Uzbekistan. The Graces called it Oxus. It is called Jayhoun in the geography of the Arab-Muslim Middle Ages. The Amu-Daria is born in the Hindu-Kush mountains, crosses Pamir, then the Karakum desert and the Hunger Steppe, forms a delta and flows into the Aral Sea. The Vakhch from the north-east (Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan) and the Piandj from the plateau of Pamirà in the east form Amou-Daria. Its length is 2,620 km. But it is navigable on 1,450 km only. It serves as the border with Afghanistan. This river irrigates the area of Khiva and flowing towards the Aral Sea forms a delta along 160 km. The Amu-Daria and the Syr-Daria throw themselves into the Aral Sea.
Europe knew the Amou-Daria by the information of the French geographer Thibaut Viné in 1876.
There are also a multitude of rivers the biggest of which are:
Zerfshan is born in the mountains of Zerafshan. Its length is 740 km.
Kashkadaria is born in the mountain ranges of Hisor. Its length is 332 km.
The Ohangaron is born in the mountain ranges of Qurama and Chotqol. Its length is 236 km.
The Surxondaria is born in the mountain ranges of Hisor. Its length is 196 km.
The Sheroboddaria is born in the mountain ranges of Hisor. Its length is 186 km.
The Qoradaria is born in the mountain ranges of Alay .. Its length is 180 km.
The Chirchik is born in the mountains of Tyanshan. Its length is 174 km.
The largest lakes are: Aral, Arnasoy, Aydar, Tuzkon, Dengizko’l, Somonko’l, Kunjakul, Shurkul, Axsikentkul, Damkul, Sariqamish, Sudochie, Ziyokul, Ulugchurkul, Abilkul, Oqkul, Buztovkul. The largest water reservoirs are: Tuyamuyin, Chordara, Qayroqqum, Chorvoq, Kattakurgan, Tuyabugiz.
The Aral Sea
The Aral Sea is an ancient saltwater lake of Central Asia. It is located between 43 ° and 46 ° north latitude and between 58 ° and 62 ° longitude. It is shared by Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan. Two rivers, the Amu-Daria and the Syr-Daria, flow into the Aral Sea. Its Uzbek name Orol means “island”. Until the 1960s the blue waters of the Aral Sea were pure. Their temperature in summer could reach 26 ° C to 27 ° C on the surface (but only 1 ° C to 3 ° C in the bottoms of the west coast). The sea was caught by the ice until the beginning of May. Precipitation is low in this region between 130 and 140 mm / year on average, the evaporation is very high (1 000 mm / year). But two great rivers balanced the hydrological balance of the sea. Its surface area was 66 458 km2.
In the 1960s the Aral Sea was the fourth lake in the world. According to the Soviet decision, the waters of the Amu-Daria and Syr-Daria rivers were used to irrigate new cotton fields. The Soviet authorities knew that the diversion of the waters of these large rivers would be the cause of the drying up of the The Aral Sea. More than forty years the sea has been deprived of the water of its tributaries. More than 200,000 km of irrigation canals, 120000 km of drainage pipes, 90000 pumping stations and 50 reservoir dams have been built. In 1987, the sea was divided by two. It is the man is guilty of the biggest ecological disaster that suffers the Aral Sea. This diversion of the waters of the rivers to produce cotton becomes the cause of one of the greatest environmental catastrophes of the twentieth century.
Until the end of the 20th century the sea level dropped by more than 16 m, and its shores retreated by 80 km. The shrinking of the Aral Sea changed the climate. The air becomes drier, the coldest winters, the hottest summers. The soil is degraded by salty winds and dust storms. These dust storms are called “the dry tears of the Aral Sea”. This degradation is the cause of the accelerated melting of the glaciers of the peripheral mountains and the climatic changes of the Fergana valley as far as Georgia and even on the Arctic coast. The drying up of the sea is the cause of many diseases. Since 1960, the Aral Sea has lost 75% of its surface, 14 meters deep and 90% of its volume. All this increased the salinity of the water. The number of species of birds and mammals has disappeared in fifty years. The muskrat, known for its fur, has disappeared. . Previously there were 173 species of animals, but today 38 species from the Aral Sea have survived.
The salinity of the water is the cause of the loss of the majority of fish species. The number of fish species decreased from 32 to 6. Caravans of the boats are found on the old seabed.
The World Bank financed the construction of the Kok-Aral concrete dam and dykes to raise the water level. Work began in 2003. The construction of the dam finished in 2005. The sea has already regained 30% of its surface. According to data from specialists the level of the northern part of the Aral Sea has risen by six meters in 2009. In 2012 Uzbekistan planted 300,000 hectares of saxaul (shrub) .These shrubs produce 167,000 tons of oxygen Absorbing 230,000 tons of CO2. This reduces the greenhouse effect.